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USMLE Step 1 Random Facts > Repro > Flashcards

Flashcards in Repro Deck (88):
1

vagina histo (H)

stratified squamous epith, nonkeratinized
contains glycogen

2

ectocervix H

stratified squamous epith

3

endocervix H

simple columnar epith

4

uterus H

simple columnar epith, pseudostratified tubular glands

5

fallopian tube H

simple columnar epith, ciliated (helps transport egg)

6

ovary H

simple cuboidal (germinal) epith

7

1st aortic arch

part of maxillary artery (branch of external carotid)

"1st arch is MAXimal"

8

2nd aortic arch

stapedial artery
hyoid artery

"Second = Stapedial"

9

3rd aortic arch

common carotid artery
prox part of internal carotid artery

"C is 3rd letter of alphabet"

10

4th aortic arch

on left: aortic arch
on right: prox part of right subclavian artery

"4th arch (4 limbs) = systemic

11

6th aortic arch

prox part of pulmonary arteries and (on left only) ductus arteriosus

12

1sr branchial cleft

develops into external auditory meatus

13

2nd - 4th branchial clefts

form temporary cervical sinuses, which are obliterated by prolif of 2nd arch mesenchyme

14

1st branchial pouch

middle ear cavity, eustachian tube, mastoid air cells

15

2nd branchial pouch

epithelial lining of palatine tonsil

16

3rd branchial pouch

dorsal wings --> inferior parathyroids
ventral wings --> thymus

17

4th branchial pouch

dorsal wing - superior parathyroids

18

mneumonic for branchial pouches

Ear, tonsils, bottom-to-top

19

causes of polyhydramnios

decreased fetal swallowing:
esophageal/duodenal atresia
anencephaly

increased fetal urination:
high cardiac output due to anemia
twin-twin transfusion synd

20

causes of oligohydramnios

placental insufficiency
bilat renal agenesis
post urethral valves (in males)

21

oligohydramnios can give rise to?

Potter's synd

22

first sign of puberty in boys

testicular enlargement

23

first sign of puberty in girls

breast enlargement

24

kallman synd classical signs

anosmia + central hypogondism

25

defect in Kallman synd

DECREASE synth of GnRH in hypothalamus;

commonly mut of KAL-1 gene or FGFR-1 gene

26

best test for menopause?

FSH (should be INCREASED bc of loss of negative feedback due to DECREASED estrogen)

27

Hesselbach's triangle

inferior epigastric vessels
lateral border of rectus abdominus
inguinal ligament

28

testicular germ cell tumors?

seminoma
yolk sac (endodermal sinus) tumor
choriocarcinoma
Teratoma
embryonal carcinoma

29

testicular non-germ cell tumors

Leydig cell
Sertoli cell
testicular lymphoma

30

testicular seminoma

"fried-egg appearance" (similar to koilocytes)
most common
painless

31

testicular yolk sac (endodermal sinus) tumor

Schiller-Duval bodies (look like primitive glomeruli)
increased AFP
most common up to age 3

32

choriocarcinoma

increased hCG
disordered synciotrophoblasts/cytotrophoblast elements
hematogenous spread to lungs

33

testicular teratoma

malignant (diff from females)
increased hCG
increased AFP (50%)
teeth + hair

34

embryonal carcinoma

painful
normal AFP, increased hCG
glandular/papillary morphology

35

Leydig cell tumor

Reinke crystals
testosterone secreting
gynecomastia
golden brown color

36

Sertoli cell tumor

secrete estrogen
gynecomastia

37

testicular lymphoma

most common in older men

38

excess unopposed estrogen = main RF in?

endometrial hyperplasia/carcinoma

39

menorrhagia w/ enlarged uterus + NO palpable pain

leiomyoma

40

pelvic pain present ONLY during menstruation

endometriosis

41

dx by endometrial biopsy

endometrial hyperplasia/carcinoma

42

definitive dx + tx by laproscopy

endometriosis

43

menstruating tissue w/in myometrium

adenomyosis

44

chocolate cyst of ovary

endometriosis

45

elevated LH seen in?

normal surge before ovulation
menopause
PCOS
Androgen insensitivity synd

46

ovarian tumor prod AFP

yolk sac

47

ovarian tumor prod estrogen, leading to precocious puberty

Granulosa-theca cell

48

ovarian tumor w/ intraperitoneal accum of mucinous material

mucinous cystadenocarcinoma

49

ovarian tumor that's testosterone-secreting, leading to virilization

Sertoli-Leydig cell

50

ovarian tumor w/ Psammoma bodies

serous cystadenocarcinoma

51

ovarian tumor lined w/ fallopian tube-like epith

serous cystadenoma

52

ovarian tumor + ascites + hydrothorax

Meig's synd of ovarian fibroma

53

ovarian tumor w/ Call-Exner bodies

Granulosa-theca cell

54

ovarian tumor that resembles bladder epithelium

Brenner tumor

55

ovarian tumor w/ elevated beta-hCG

choriocarcinoma

56

what are Call-Exner bodies?

disarrayed granulosa cells in eosinophilic fluid

57

Sonic hedgehog gene

prod @ base of limbs in ZPA
patterning along A-P axis; impt in CNS dev't
mut = holoprosencephaly

58

Wnt-7 gene

prod @ apical ectodermal ridge (thickened ectoderm @ distal end of each developing limb)
proper org of dorsal-ventral axis (so feet and nose point in same direction)

59

FGF gene

prod @ apical ectodermal ridge
does limb lengthening

60

Hox gene

does segmental organization of embryo in craniocaudal fashion ("makes sure skeleton laid out correctly")
mut = appendages in wrong locations

61

treacher collins synd is failure of what arch

1st arch neural crest cells fail to migrate
mandibular hypoplasia, facial abnorms

62

suspensory ligament of ovaries (aka infundibulopelvic ligament)

ovaries to lateral pelvic wall

contains: ovarian vessels
ureter @ risk during ligation of ovarian vessels in oophorectomy

63

cardinal ligament

cervix to side wall of pelvis

contains: uterine vessels
ureter @ risk during ligation of uterine vessels in oophorectomy

64

round ligament of uterus

uterine fundus to labia majora

contains: artery of Sampson
deriv of gubernaculum

65

broad ligament

uterus, fallopian tubes, ovaries to pelvic side wall

contains: ovaries, fallopian tubes, round ligament of uterus
composed of: mesosalpinx, mesovarium, mesometrium

**ligated during hysterectomies!!

66

ligament of the ovary

medial pole of ovary to lateral uterus
deriv of gubernaculum

67

male sexual response innervations:

erection = Parasymp (pelvic nerves)
emission = Sympath (hypogastric n.)
ejaculation = visceral/somatic (pudendal n.)

Point and Shoot!!

68

blood-testis barrier forms b/w

spermatogonium + primary spermatocyte

69

estrogen types

ovary - estradiol
placenta - estriol
adipose - estrone (via aromatization)

70

FSH, LH actions/sites

LH --> Theca cells --> converts cholesterol to androstenedione via DESMOLASE

FSH --> Granulosa cell --> converts androstenedione --> estrogen via AROMATASE

71

elevation of progesterone indicates:

ovulation

72

Klinefelter hormone changes

increased FSH and LH due to lack of inhibin (for FSH) + testosterone (for LH) feedback regulation
increased LH --> increased estrogen

73

Turner hormone changes

decreased estrogen --> increased FSH, LH

74

cause of preeclampsia/eclampsia

placental ischemia due to impaired vasodil of spiral arteries

75

tx of seizures of eclampsia

IV Mg sulfate

76

abruptio placenta

premature detachment of placenta from implant site
ass w/ DIC
RF: smoking, HTN, cocaine use, trauma (MVA), abuse
dx = check for fetal blood cells in maternal blood (Kleihauer-Betke test)

painFUL bleed in 3rd trimester
life threatening for both

77

placenta accreta

defective decidual layer --> placenta ATTACHES to myometrium w/ NO separation of placenta after birth --> causes MASSIVE bleeding after delivery
RF: prior C-section, inflamm, placenta previa

78

placenta previa

placenta over the cerivical os (placenta is attached to lower uterine segment)
RF: nulliparity, prior C-section

painLESS bleed in ANY trimester (usually 3rd)
dx = US
tx = C-section

79

placenta INcreta

grows INto wall of uterus

80

placenta percreta

perforates thru uterus + invades

81

tx of PCOS (5!):

1) wt reduction (decreases insulin levels)
2) low dose OCPs or medroxyprogesterone (decreases LH and androgenesis)
3) spironolactone (antagonizes androgen receptors - tx acne, hirsutism)
4) clomiphene or leuprolide (increases ovulation)
5) metformin (for pts w/ diabetes or sympt of metabolic synd)

82

most impt RF for ovarian cancer

family history

83

BPH is enlargement of?

periurethral (lateral and middle) lobes [aka transition zone]

84

prostate cancer arise from what zone?

peripheral zone (posterior lobe) - is what is felt during rectal exam

85

tx for prostate cancer?

flutamide (inhib testosterone @ receptor)

86

hormone changes in cryptorchidism

decreased inhibin
increased FSH, LH
testosterone: decreased if bilat, NORMAL if unilat

87

cause of Peyronie's disease

inflamm of tunica albuginea --> fibrous tissue formation

88

how does ketoconazole inhib steroid synth

inhib desmolase