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Flashcards in Diuretics Deck (64):
0

Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors

Acetazolamide
Brinzolamide
Dorszolamide

1

Acetazolamide

Carbonic anhydrase inhibitor

2

Brinzolamide

Carbonic anhydrase inhibitor
(Topical for glaucoma)

3

Dorszolamide

Carbonic anhydrase inhibitor
(Topical for glaucoma)

4

Carbonic anhydrase inhibitor
Mechanism of action

Inhibition of the enzyme prevents dehydration of H2CO3 and hydration of CO2 in the proximal convoluted tubule

5

Inhibition of the enzyme prevents dehydration of H2CO3 and hydration of CO2 in the proximal convoluted tubule

Carbonic anhydrase inhibitor
Mechanism of action

6

Acetazolamide
Mechanism of action

Inhibition of the enzyme prevents dehydration of H2CO3 and hydration of CO2 in the proximal convoluted tubule

7

Carbonic anhydrase inhibitor
Effects

-Reduces reabsorbtion of HCO3- , causing self-limited diuresis
-hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis reduces body ph, reduces intraocular pressure

8

Carbonic anhydrase inhibitor
Clinical applications

Glaucoma, moutain sickness, edema with alkalosis

9

Glaucoma, moutain sickness, edema with alkalosis

Carbonic anhydrase inhibitor
Clinical applications

10

Loop diuretics

Furosemide
Bumetanide
Torsemide
Ethacrynic acid

11

Furosemide

Loop diuretic (sulfonamide)

12

Bumetanide

Loop diuretic (sulfonamide)

13

Torsemide

Loop diuretic (sulfonamide)

14

Ethacrynic acid

Loop diuretic (not sulfonamide)

15

Furosemide
Mechanism of action

Inhibition of the Na/K/2Cl in the ascending limb of Henle's loop

16

Inhibition of the Na/K/2Cl in the ascending limb of Henle's loop

Furosemide
Mechanism of action

17

Loop diuretics
Mechanism of action

Inhibition of the Na/K/2Cl in the ascending limb of Henle's loop

18

Loop diuretics
Effects

-Marked increase in NaCl excretion
-Some K wasting
-Hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis
-Increased urine Ca and Mg

19

-Marked increase in NaCl excretion
-Some K wasting
-Hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis
-Increased urine Ca and Mg

Loop diuretics
Effects

20

Loop diuretics
Clinical applications

-Pulmonary edema.
-Peripheral edema.
-Hypertension.
-Acute hypercalcemia.
-Acute hyperkalemia.
-Renal failure anion overdose (bromide, fluoride,
and iodide.

21

-Pulmonary edema.
-Peripheral edema.
-Hypertension.
-Acute hypercalcemia.
-Acute hyperkalemia.
-Renal failure anion overdose (bromide, fluoride,
and iodide.

Loop diuretics
Clinical applications

22

Loop diuretics
Toxicity

Ototoxicity
Hypovolemia
K wasting
Hyperuricemia
Hypomagnesemia

23

Thiazide diuretics

Hydrochlorothiazide
Chlorothiazide
Bendroflumethiazide
Hydroflumethazide
Methyclothiazide
Indapamide

24

Hydrochlorothiazide

Thiazide diuretic

25

Chlorothiazide

Thiazide diuretic

26

Hydroflumethazide

Thiazide diuretic

27

Methyclothiazide

Thiazide diuretic

28

Indapamide

Thiazide diuretic

29

Thiazide diuretic
Mechanism of action

Inhibition of the Na/Cl transporter in the distal convoluted tubule

30

Inhibition of the Na/Cl transporter in the distal convoluted tubule

Thiazide diuretic
Mechanism of action

31

Thiazide diuretic
Effects

Modest increase in NaCl excretion
Some K wasting
Hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis
Decreased urine Ca

32

Modest increase in NaCl excretion
Some K wasting
Hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis
Decreased urine Ca

Thiazide diuretic
Effects

33

Thiazide diuretic
Clinical applications

Hypertension
Mild heart failure
Nephrolithiasis
Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus

34

Hypertension
Mild heart failure
Nephrolithiasis
Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus

Thiazide diuretic
Clinical applications

35

Thiazide diuretic
Toxicities

Hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis
Hyperuricemia
Hyperglycemia
Hyponatremia

36

Hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis
Hyperuricemia
Hyperglycemia
Hyponatremia

Thiazide diuretic
Toxicities

37

Potassium-sparing diuretics

Spironolactone
Eplerenone
Amiloride
Triamterene

38

Spironolactone

Potassium-sparing diuretic

39

Eplerenone

Potassium-sparing diuretic

40

Amiloride

Potassium-sparing diuretic

41

Triamterene

Potassium-sparing diuretic

42

Spironolactone
Mechanism of action

Pharmacologic antagonist of aldosteron in collecting tubules

Weak antagonism of androgen receptor

43

Pharmacologic antagonist of aldosteron in collecting tubules

Weak antagonism of androgen receptor

Spironolactone
Mechanism of action

44

Eplerenone
Mechanism of action

Pharmacologic antagonist of aldosteron in collecting tubules

Weak antagonism of androgen receptor

Like spironolactone, more selective for aldosterone receptor

45

Pharmacologic antagonist of aldosteron in collecting tubules

Weak antagonism of androgen receptor

Like spironolactone, more selective for aldosterone receptor

Eplerenone
Mechanism of action

46

Spironolactone
Effect

Reduces Na retention and K wasting in kidney
Poorly understood antagonism of aldosterone in heart and vessels

47

Reduces Na retention and K wasting in kidney
Poorly understood antagonism of aldosterone in heart and vessels

Spironolactone
Effect

48

Spironolactone
Eplereone

Clinical application

Aldosteronism from any cause
Hypokalemia due to other diuretics
Postmyocardial infarction

49

Aldosteronism from any cause
Hypokalemia due to other diuretics
Postmyocardial infarction

Spironolactone
Eplereone

Clinical application

50

Spironolactone
Toxicity, interactions

Hyperkalemia
Gynecomastia
Additive interaction with other K-retaining drugs

51

Hyperkalemia
Gynecomastia
Additive interaction with other K-retaining drugs

Spironolactone
Toxicity, interactions

52

Eplerenone
Toxicity, interactions

Hyperkalemia
Additive interaction with other K-retaining drugs

53

Hyperkalemia
Additive interaction with other K-retaining drugs

Eplerenone
Toxicity, interactions

54

Amiloride
Mechanism of action

Blocks epithelial sodium channels in collecting tubules

55

Blocks epithelial sodium channels in collecting tubules

Amiloride
Mechanism of action

56

Amiloride
Effects

Reduces Na retention and K wasting
Increases lithium clearance

57

Reduces Na retention and K wasting
Increases lithium clearance

Amiloride
Effects

58

Amiloride
Clinical applications

Hypokalemia from other diuretics
Reduces lithium induced polyuria

59

Hypokalemia from other diuretics
Reduces lithium induced polyuria

Amiloride
Clinical applications

60

Amiloride
Toxicity

Hyperkalemic metabolic acidosis

61

Hyperkalemic metabolic acidosis

Amiloride
Toxicity

62

Triamterene

Mechanism like Amiloride, much less potent, more toxic.

63

Mechanism like Amiloride, much less potent, more toxic.

Triamterene