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Flashcards in Drugs Used In Diabetes Deck (77):
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Insulins

Rapid-acting: Lispro, aspart, glulisine
Short-acting: Regular
Intermediate-acting: NPH
Long-acting: Detemir, glargine

1

Lispro

Rapid-acting:Insulin

2

aspart

Rapid-acting:Insulin

3

glulisine

Rapid-acting:Insulin

4

Regular

Short-acting:Insulin

5

NPH

Intermediate-acting: Insulin

6

Detemir

Long-acting: Insulin

7

glargine

Long-acting: Insulin

8

Rapid-acting:insulin

Lispro
aspart
glulisine

9

Short-acting:Insulin

Regular

10

Intermediate-acting: Insulin

NPH

14

Long-acting: Insulin

Detemir
Glargine

15

Insulins
Mechanism of action

Activate insulin receptor

16

Activate insulin receptor

Insulins
Mechanism of action

17

Insulins
Effects

Reduce circulating glucose
Promote glucose transport and oxidation;glycogen, lipid, protein synthese; and regulation of gene expression

18

Reduce circulating glucose
Promote glucose transport and oxidation;glycogen, lipid, protein synthese; and regulation of gene expression

Insulins
Effects

19

Insulins
Clinical applications

Type 1 and type 2 diabetes

20

Type 1 and type 2 diabetes

Insulins
Clinical applications

21

Insulins
Toxicity

Hypoglycemia
Weight gain
Lipodystrophy (rare)

22

Hypoglycemia
Weight gain
Lipodystrophy (rare)

Insulins
Toxicity

23

Sulfonylureas

Glipizide
Glyburide
Glimepiride

24

Glipizide

Sulfonylurea

25

Glyburide

Sulfonylurea

26

Glimepiride

Sulfonylurea

27

Sulfonylurea
Mechanism of action

Insulin secretagogues: close K+ Channels in beta cells
Increase insulin release

28

Insulin secretagogues: close K+ Channels in beta cells
Increase insulin release

Sulfonylurea
Mechanism of action

29

Sulfonylurea
Effects

In patients with functioning beta cells, reduce circulating glucose
Increase glycogen, fat, and protein formation
Gene regulation

30

In patients with functioning beta cells, reduce circulating glucose
Increase glycogen, fat, and protein formation
Gene regulation

Sulfonylurea
Effects

31

Sulfonylurea
Clinical applications

Type 2 diabetes

32

Sulfonylurea
Clinical applications

Type 2 diabetes

33

Sulfonylurea
Toxicity

Hypoglycemia
Weight gain

34

Hypoglycemia
Weight gain

Sulfonylurea
Toxicity

35

Glitinides

Repaglinide
Nateglinide

36

Repaglinide

Glitinide

37

Nateglinide

Glitinide

38

Repaglinide

Mechanism of action

Insulin secretagogue: similar to sulfonylureas with some overlap in binding sites

39

Insulin secretagogue: similar to sulfonylureas with some overlap in binding sites

Repaglinide
Nateglinide

Mechanism of action

40

Nateglinide

Mechanism of action

Insulin secretagogue: similar to sulfonylureas with some overlap in binding sites

41

Repaglinide

Effects

In patients with functioning beta cells, reduces circulating glucose
Increases glycogen, fat, and protein formation
Gene regulation

42

In patients with functioning beta cells, reduces circulating glucose
Increases glycogen, fat, and protein formation
Gene regulation

Repaglinide (glitinides)
Nateglinide (glitinides)
Glipizide (sulfonylurea)
Glyburide (sulfonylurea)
Glimepiride (sulfonylurea)
Effects

43

Biguanide

Metformin

44

Metformin

Biguanide

45

Metformin (Biguanide)

Mechanism of action

Obscure: Reduced hepatic and renal gluconeogenesis

46

Obscure: Reduced hepatic and renal gluconeogenesis

Metformin (Biguanide)

Mechanism of action

47

Metformin (Biguanide)

Effects

Decreased endogenous glucose production

48

Decreased endogenous glucose production

Metformin (Biguanide)

Effects

49

Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors

Acarbose
Miglitol

50

Acarbose

Alpha-glucosidase inhibitor

51

Miglitol

Alpha-glucosidase inhibitor

52

Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors

Mechanism of action

Inhibit intestinal a-glucosidases

53

Inhibit intestinal a-glucosidases

Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors

Mechanism of action

54

Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors

Effects

Reduces conversion of starch and disaccharides to monosaccharides
Reduces postpradial hyperglycemia

55

Reduces conversion of starch and disaccharides to monosaccharides
Reduces postpradial hyperglycemia

Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors

Effects

56

Thiazolidinediones

Pioglitazone
Rosiglitazone

57

Pioglitazone

Thiazolidinedione

58

Rosiglitazone

Thiazolidinedione

59

Pioglitazone

Mechanism of action

Regulates gene expression by binding PPAR-y and PPAR-a

60

Rosiglitazone

Mechanism of action

Regulates gene expression by binding PPAR-y

61

Regulates gene expression by binding PPAR-y

Rosiglitazone

Mechanism of action

62

Regulates gene expression by binding PPAR-y and PPAR-a

Pioglitazone

Mechanism of action

63

Pioglitazone
Rosiglitazone

Effects

Reduces insulin resistance

64

Reduces insulin resistance

Pioglitazone
Rosiglitazone

Effects

65

Glucagon-like polypeptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists

Exenatide
Liraglutide

66

Exenatide

Glucagon-like polypeptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist

67

Liraglutide

Glucagon-like polypeptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist

68

Exenatide (GLP-1)

Mechanism of action

Analog of GLP-1: binds to GLP-1 receptors

69

Analog of GLP-1: binds to GLP-1 receptors

Exenatide
Liraglutide

Mechanism of action

70

Exenatide
Liraglutide

Effects

Reduces post-meal glucose excursion: increases glucose-mediated insulin release, lowers glucagon levels, slows gastric emptying, decreases appetite

71

Reduces post-meal glucose excursion: increases glucose-mediated insulin release, lowers glucagon levels, slows gastric emptying, decreases appetite

Exenatide
Liraglutide

Effects

72

Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors

Sitagliptin
Saxagliptin
Linagliptin

73

Sitagliptin

Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor

74

Saxagliptin

Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor

75

Linagliptin

Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor

76

Sitagliptin
Saxagliptin
Linagliptin

Mechanism of action

DPP-4 inhibitor: blocks degradation of GLP-1, raises circulating GLP-1 levels

77

DPP-4 inhibitor: blocks degradation of GLP-1, raises circulating GLP-1 levels

Sitagliptin
Saxagliptin
Linagliptin

Mechanism of action

78

Sitagliptin
Saxagliptin
Linagliptin

Effects

Reduces post-meal glucose excursion: increases glucose-mediated insulin release, lowers glucagon levels, slows gastric emptying, decreases appetite

79

Reduces post-meal glucose excursion: increases glucose-mediated insulin release, lowers glucagon levels, slows gastric emptying, decreases appetite

Sitagliptin
Saxagliptin
Linagliptin
Exenatide

Effects