GI Drugs Flashcards Preview

Pharma > GI Drugs > Flashcards

Flashcards in GI Drugs Deck (137):
0

Drugs used in acid-peptic diseases

Proton pump inhibitors
H2-receptor blockers
Sucralfate
Antacids

1

Proton pump inhibitors
H2-receptor blockers
Sucralfate
Antacids

Drugs used in acid-peptic diseases

2

Proton pump inhibitors

Omeprazole
Lansoprazol
Etc

3

Omeprazole

Proton pump inhibitor

4

Lansoprazol

Proton pump inhibitor

5

Proton pump inhibitors
Mechanism of action

Irreversible blockade of H+/K+ATPase pump in active parietal cells of stomach

6

Irreversible blockade of H+/K+ATPase pump in active parietal cells of stomach

Proton pump inhibitors
Mechanism of action

7

Proton pump inhibitors
Effects

Long-lasting reduction of stimulating and nocturnal acid secretion

8

Long-lasting reduction of stimulating and nocturnal acid secretion

Proton pump inhibitors
Effects

9

Proton pump inhibitors
Clinical applications

Peptic ulcer
Gastroesophageal reflux disease
Erosive gastritis

10

Peptic ulcer
Gastroesophageal reflux disease
Erosive gastritis

Proton pump inhibitors
Clinical applications

11

Proton pump inhibitors
Toxicities

Reduction of stomach acid may reduce absorbtion of some drugs and increase that of others

12

Reduction of stomach acid may reduce absorbtion of some drugs and increase that of others

Proton pump inhibitors
Toxicities

13

H2-receptors blockers

Cimetidine
Etc

14

H2-receptors blockers

Cimetidine
Etc

15

H2-receptors blockers
Effects

Effective reduction of nocturnal acid but less effective against stimulated secretion, very safe.

16

Effective reduction of nocturnal acid but less effective against stimulated secretion, very safe.

H2-receptors blockers
Effects

17

Sucralfate
Effects

Polymerizes at site of tissue damage (ulcer bed) and protectsagainst further damage; very insoluble with no systemic effects; must be given 4 times daily

18

Polymerizes at site of tissue damage (ulcer bed) and protectsagainst further damage; very insoluble with no systemic effects; must be given 4 times daily

Sucralfate
Effects

19

Antacids
Effects

Popular OTC medication for symtomatic relief of heartburn; not as usful as PPI and H2 blockers in peptic diseases

20

Popular OTC medication for symtomatic relief of heartburn; not as usful as PPI and H2 blockers in peptic diseases

Antacids
Effects

21

Drugs stimulating motility

Metoclopramid
Domperidone
Cholibomimetics: Neostigmine
Macrolides: Eryhromycin

22

Metoclopramid
Domperidone
Cholibomimetics: Neostigmine
Macrolides: Eryhromycin

Drugs stimulating motility

23

Drugs stimulating motility
Metoclopramid
Domperidone

Mechanism of action

D2-receptor blocker
Removes inhibition of acetylcholine neurons in enteric nervous system

24

D2-receptor blocker
Removes inhibition of acetylcholine neurons in enteric nervous system

Drugs stimulating motility
Metoclopramid
Domperidone

Mechanism of action

25

Drugs stimulating motility
Metoclopramid
Domperidone

Effects

Increases gastric emptying and intestinal mobility

26

Drugs stimulating motility
Metoclopramid
Domperidone

Effects

Increases gastric emptying and intestinal mobility

27

Drugs stimulating motility
Metoclopramid
Domperidone

Clinical applications

Gastric paresis (e.g, in diabetic)
Antiemetic

28

Gastric paresis (e.g, in diabetic)
Antiemetic

Drugs stimulating motility
Metoclopramid
Domperidone

Clinical applications

29

Drugs stimulating motility
Metoclopramid
Domperidone

Toxicities

Parkinsonian symtoms due to block of central nervous system (CNS) D2 receptors

30

Parkinsonian symtoms due to block of central nervous system (CNS) D2 receptors

Drugs stimulating motility
Metoclopramid
Domperidone

Toxicities

31

Laxatives

Magnesium hydroxide, other nonabsorbable salts
Bulk-forming laxatives
Stimulants laxatives
Stool surfactans
Chlorid channal activator
Opioid receptor antagonists
5-HT4 agonists

32

Magnesium hydroxide, other nonabsorbable salts
Bulk-forming laxatives
Stimulants laxatives
Stool surfactans
Chlorid channal activator
Opioid receptor antagonists
5-HT4 agonists

Laxatives

33

Magnesium hydroxide, other nonabsorbable salts and sugars

Mechanism of action

Osmotic agents increase water content of stool

34

Osmotic agents increase water content of stool

Magnesium hydroxide, other nonabsorbable salts and sugars

Mechanism of action

35

Magnesium hydroxide, other nonabsorbable salts and sugars

Effects

Usally cause evacuation within 4-6 h, sooner in large doses

36

Usally cause evacuation within 4-6 h, sooner in large doses

Magnesium hydroxide, other nonabsorbable salts and sugars

Effects

37

Magnesium hydroxide, other nonabsorbable salts and sugars

Clinical applications

Simple constipation
Bowel prep for endoscopy
(especially PGE solutions)

38

Simple constipation
Bowel prep for endoscopy
(especially PGE solutions)

Magnesium hydroxide, other nonabsorbable salts and sugars

Clinical applications

39

Magnesium hydroxide, other nonabsorbable salts and sugars

Toxicities

Magnesium may be absorbed and cause toxicity in renal imparment

40

Magnesium may be absorbed and cause toxicity in renal imparment

Magnesium hydroxide, other nonabsorbable salts and sugars

Toxicities

41

Bulk-forming laxatives

Methylcellulose
Psyllium
Etc
( increase volume of colon, stimulat evacuation)

42

Methylcellulose
Psyllium
Etc
( increase volume of colon, stimulat evacuation)

Bulk-forming laxatives

43

Stimulants (laxatives)

Senna
Cascara
(Stimulate activity; may cause cramping)

44

Senna
Cascara
(Stimulate activity; may cause cramping)

Stimulants (laxatives)

45

Stool surfactants

Docusate
Mineral oil
(Lubricate stool, ease passage)

46

Docusate
Mineral oil
(Lubricate stool, ease passage)

Stool surfactants

47

Chloride channal activators (laxatives)

Lubiprostone
Prostanoic acid derivate

(Stimulates chloride secration into intestine, increasing fluid content)

48

Lubiprostone
Prostanoic acid derivate

(Stimulates chloride secration into intestine, increasing fluid content)

Chloride channal activators (laxatives)

49

Opioid receptor antagonists (laxatives)

Alvimopan
Methylnaltrexone

(Blocks intestinal U-opioid receptors but do not enter CNS, so analgesia is maintained)

50

Alvimopan
Methylnaltrexone

(Blocks intestinal U-opioid receptors but do not enter CNS, so analgesia is maintained)

Opioid receptor antagonists (laxatives)

51

5-HT4 agonists (laxatives)

Tegaserod

(Activates enteric 5-HT4 receptors and increase intestinal mobility)

52

Tegaserod

(Activates enteric 5-HT4 receptors and increase intestinal mobility)

5-HT4 agonists (laxatives)

53

Antidiarrheal drugs

Loperamide
Diphenoxylate
Colloidal bismuth compounds
Kaolin+pectin

54

Loperamide
Diphenoxylate
Colloidal bismuth compounds
Kaolin+pectin

Antidiarrheal drugs

55

Loperamide
Mechanism of action

Activates U-opioid receptors in enteric nervous system

56

Activates U-opioid receptors in enteric nervous system

Loperamide
Mechanism of action

57

Loperamide
Effects

Slows mobility in gut with negliable CNS effects

58

Slows mobility in gut with negliable CNS effects

Loperamide
Effects

59

Loperamide
Clinical applications

Nonspecific, noninfectious diarrhea

60

Nonspecific, noninfectious diarrhea

Loperamide
Clinical applications

61

Loperamide
Toxicities

Mild cramping but little or no CNS toxicity

62

Mild cramping but little or no CNS toxicity

Loperamide
Toxicities

63

Diphenoxylate

Effects

Similar to loperamid, but high doses can cause CNS opioid effects and toxicity

64

Similar to loperamid, but high doses can cause CNS opioid effects and toxicity

Diphenoxylate

Effects

65

Colloidal bismuth compounds

Subsalicylate and citrate salts available
OTC preparations popular and have some value in travelers' diarrhea due to adsorption of toxins

66

Subsalicylate and citrate salts available
OTC preparations popular and have some value in travelers' diarrhea due to adsorption of toxins

Colloidal bismuth compounds

67

Kaolin+pectin

Adsorbent compounds available OTC in some contries

68

Adsorbent compounds available OTC in some contries

Kaolin+pectin

69

Drugs for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)

Alosetron (5-HT3 antagonist)
Anticholinergics
Chloride channal activators

70

Alosetron (5-HT3 antagonist)
Anticholinergics
Chloride channal activators

Drugs for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)

71

Alosetron
Mechanism of action

5-HT3 antagonist of high potency and duration of binding

72

5-HT3 antagonist of high potency and duration of binding

Alosetron
Mechanism of action

73

Alosetron
Effects

Reduces smooth muscle activity in gut

74

Reduces smooth muscle activity in gut

Alosetron
Effects

75

Alosetron
Clinical applications

Approved for severe diarrhea-predominant IBS in women

76

Approved for severe diarrhea-predominant IBS in women

Alosetron
Clinical applications

77

Alosetron
Toxicities

Rare but serious constipation
Ischemic colitis
Infarction

78

Rare but serious constipation
Ischemic colitis
Infarction

Alosetron
Toxicities

79

Antiemetic drugs

Ondasetron, other 5-HT3 antagonists
Aprepitant
Corticosteroids
Antimuscarinic
Antihistaminics
Phenothizines
Cannabinoids

80

Ondasetron, other 5-HT3 antagonists
Aprepitant
Corticosteroids
Antimuscarinic
Antihistaminics
Phenothizines
Cannabinoids

Antiemetic drugs

81

Ondasetron, other 5-HT3 antagonists

Mechanism of action

5-HT3 blockade in gut and CNS with shorter duration of binding than alosetron

82

5-HT3 blockade in gut and CNS with shorter duration of binding than alosetron

Ondasetron, other 5-HT3 antagonists

Mechanism of action

83

Ondasetron, other 5-HT3 antagonists

Effects

Extremely effective in preventing chemotheraphy induced and postoperative nausea and vomiting

84

Extremely effective in preventing chemotheraphy induced and postoperative nausea and vomiting

Ondasetron, other 5-HT3 antagonists

Effects

85

Ondasetron, other 5-HT3 antagonists

Clinical applications

First-line agents in cancer chemotherapy; also useful for postop emesis

86

First-line agents in cancer chemotherapy; also useful for postop emesis

Ondasetron, other 5-HT3 antagonists

Clinical applications

87

Aprepitant

Mechanism of action

NK1-receptor blocker in CNS

88

NK1-receptor blocker in CNS

Aprepitant

Mechanism of action

89

Aprepitant

Effects

Interferes with vomiting reflex
No effect on 5-HT, dopamin or steroid receptors

90

Interferes with vomiting reflex
No effect on 5-HT, dopamin or steroid receptors

Aprepitant

Effects

91

Aprepitant

Clinical applications

Effective in reducing both early and delayed emesis in cancer chemotherapy

92

Effective in reducing both early and delayed emesis in cancer chemotherapy

Aprepitant

Clinical applications

93

Aprepitant

Toxicities

Fatigue
Dizziness
Diarrhea
CYP interactions

94

Fatigue
Dizziness
Diarrhea
CYP interactions

Aprepitant

Toxicities

95

Antimuscarinic (scopolamine)

Effective in emesis due to motion sickness; not other types

96

Effective in emesis due to motion sickness; not other types

Antimuscarinic (scopolamine)

97

Antihistaminics ( antiemetic )

Moderate efficacy in motion sickness and chemotherapy-induced emesis

98

Moderate efficacy in motion sickness and chemotherapy-induced emesis

Antihistaminics ( antiemetic )

99

Phenothiazines ( antiemetic )

Act primary through block of D2 and muscarinic receptors

100

Act primary through block of D2 and muscarinic receptors

Phenothiazines ( antiemetic )

101

Cannabinoids

Dronabinol is available for use in chemotherapy- induced nausea and vomiting, but associated with CNS marijuana effects

102

Dronabinol is available for use in chemotherapy- induced nausea and vomiting, but associated with CNS marijuana effects

Cannabinoids

103

Drugs used in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)

5-Aminosalicylates, eg mesalamine
Sulfasalazine
Purine analogs, eg, 6-mercaptopurine, methtrexate
Anti-TNF antibodies, eg infliximab, others
Corticosteroids

104

5-Aminosalicylates, eg mesalamine
Sulfasalazine
Purine analogs, eg, 6-mercaptopurine, methtrexate
Anti-TNF antibodies, eg infliximab, others
Corticosteroids

Drugs used in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)

105

5-Aminosalicylates

Mesalamine

106

Mesalamine

5-Aminosalicylates

107

Mesalamine

Mechanism of action

Mechanism uncertain
May be inhibition of eicosanoid inflammatory mediators

108

Mechanism uncertain
May be inhibition of eicosanoid inflammatory mediators

Mesalamine

Mechanism of action

109

Mesalamine

Clinical applications

Mild to moderately severe Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis

110

Mild to moderately severe Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis

Mesalamine

Clinical applications

111

Anti-TNF antibodies

Infliximab
Others

112

Infliximab
Others

Anti-TNF antibodies

113

Infliximab

Mechanism of action

Bind tumor necrosis factor and prevents it from binding to its receptors

114

Bind tumor necrosis factor and prevents it from binding to its receptors

Infliximab

Mechanism of action

115

Infliximab

Effects

Suppression of several aspects of immune function, especially TH1 lymphocytes

116

Suppression of several aspects of immune function, especially TH1 lymphocytes

Infliximab

Effects

117

Infliximab

Clinical applications

Moderately severe to severe Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis

118

Moderately severe to severe Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis

Infliximab

Clinical applications

119

Pancreatic supplements

Pancrelipase
Pancreatin

120

Pancrelipase

Pancreatic supplements

121

Pancrelipase

Mechanism of actions

Replacement enzymes from animal pancreatic extracts

122

Replacement enzymes from animal pancreatic extracts

Pancrelipase

Mechanism of actions

123

Pancrelipase

Effects

Improves digestion of dietary fat, protein, and carbohydrate

124

Pancrelipase

Effects

Improves digestion of dietary fat, protein, and carbohydrate

125

Pancrelipase

Clinical applications

Pancreatic insufficiency due to cystic fibrosis, pancreatitis, pancreatectomy

126

Pancreatic insufficiency due to cystic fibrosis, pancreatitis, pancreatectomy

Pancrelipase

Clinical applications

127

Bile acid therapy for gallstones

Ursodiol

128

Ursodiol

Bile acid therapy for gallstones

129

Ursodiol

Mechanism of action

Reduces cholesterol secretion into bile

130

Reduces cholesterol secretion into bile

Ursodiol

Mechanism of action

131

Ursodiol

Effects

Dissolves gallstones

132

Dissolves gallstones

Ursodiol

Effects

133

Ursodiol

Clinical applications

Gallstones in patients refusing or not eligible for surgery

134

Gallstones in patients refusing or not eligible for surgery

Ursodiol

Clinical applications

135

Orlistat

Non-amphetamine drug for treatment of obesity

136

Non-amphetamine drug for treatment of obesity

Orlistat