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Flashcards in Electrotherapeutic Basics Deck (154)
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91

What are the 2 types of quadrapolar electrode placement

1. Intersecting
2. Non-intersecting

92

What is the purpose of tap key electrode (2)

1. Identify motor points
2. Stimulate small muscles

93

Who first introduced interferential current (IFC)

Ho Nemec in 1950

94

When did IFC come to North America

1980s

95

What is IFC

A medium frequency current that produces unmodulated sinusoidal waves of similar amplitude that cross

96

What do the 2 different carrier frequencies do

Interfere with each other to generate an amplitude modulated by beat frequency

97

What is the beat frequency

The net difference between the two superimposed frequencies and the stimulation frequency of the waveform

98

What is interference

When the 2 waves are brought into the same location and the amplitudes combine and are increased or summative

99

What are the 2 types of interference

1. Constructive
2. Destructive

100

What is constructive interference

Two waves produced in phase or originate at the same time and the amplitudes are combined with a resulting increased amplitude

101

What is destructive interference

Two waves produced out of phase or originate at different times and the amplitudes combine with a resulting decreased amplitude

102

What happens if the waves are perfectly out of phase

The amplitudes will cancel each other with a resultant amplitude of 0

103

What is waveforms that have two different frequencies but combine at the same location produce a beat effect

Interference

104

What is the blending of the waves resulting in both constructive and destructive interference called

Heterodyne

105

What is the heterodyne effect seen as

The rising and falling waveform

106

True or False:
The beats correspond to the beat frequency and is the stimulation frequency of the waveform

True

107

What is the beat frequency

The difference between the two original frequencies

108

What is stimulating current pattern

When electrodes are placed in a square pattern an electric field is produced that looks like a four petal flower

109

Where does the maximum interference occur in IFC

The center

110

What are the types of IFC (4)

1. Constant (bipolar)
2. Variable (quadripolar)
3. Scanning (quadripolar with vector scanning)
4. Stereodynamic

111

What is constant IFC

Both carrier frequencies are fixed

112

What is variable/quadripolar IFC

One carrier frequency is fixed while the other varies in frequency creating a variable or sweep frequency

113

What is variable/quadripolar IFC used for

Minimize patient accommodation to the current

114

What is scanning IFC

The ability to move the entire petal of stimulation so as to effect a larger treatment area

115

What is stereodynamic IFC

Three distinct circuits that blend and create a distinct wave

116

Who developed the first high voltage pulsed current (HVPC)

Haislip with Bell laboratories in 1940s

117

Who did the first human study with HVPC

Thurman et al in 1971

118

What did Lehman do in 1974

Called HVPC high voltage electro galvanic stimulator

119

What does the term galvanic erroneous for

That current was not direct or continuous current but rater pulsed

120

What is HVPC

Twin peaked, monophasic, pulsed current that is driven by characteristically high EMF from 150-500 volts