EXAM #1: SMALL BOWEL PATHOLOGY II Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in EXAM #1: SMALL BOWEL PATHOLOGY II Deck (42)
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1

What is diverticulosis?

Outpouching of the intestinal wall (mucosa and submucosa through the muscularis propria)

2

What is diverticulitis?

Inflammation of an outpouching of the intestinal wall

3

Which is more associated with bleeding, diverticulosis or diverticulitis?

Diverticulosis

4

Describe the pathogenesis diverticular disease.

- Focal weakness in colonic wall caused by:
1) Increased luminal pressure
2) Low fiber diet
- Focal weakness where vasa recta enter muscularis propria

5

What intestinal wall layer is absent that leads to development of diverticula?

Muscularis propria

6

Where are most diverticula located?

Sigmoid colon

7

How do multiple diverticula appear on a barium enema?

"Sawtooth"

8

What are the complications of diverticular disease?

1) Inflammation i.e diverticulitis
2) Perforation
3) Abscess formation
4) Rupture
5) Fistula tract formation

9

What are the symptoms of diverticular disease?

- Abdominal cramping
- Lower abdominal pain
- Sensation of not being able to empty rectum

10

What part of the bowel is most commonly affected by intestinal obstruction?

Small bowel

11

What are the symptoms of intestinal obstruction?

- Pain
- Distention
- Vomiting
- Constipation
- Failure to pass gas

12

What causes most of the cases of intestinal obstruction?

1) Hernia
2) Adhesions
3) Intussusception*
4) Volvulus*

*These are medical emergencies

13

What is a hernia?

Outpouching of the peritoneum through a defect in the abdominal wall

14

What are the major complications of hernias?

1) Strangulation
2) Incarceration

*This is a medical emergency when it occurs*

15

What is an inguinal hernia?

Portion of the small intestine enters the inguinal hernia

16

What is a direct inguinal hernia?

Medial to the inferior epigastric artery

17

What is an indirect inguinal hernia?

Lateral to the inferior epigastric artery
- Through inguinal canal
- In testes

18

What are "adhesions?"

Fibrous bridges between bowel segments or abdominal wall

19

What are adhesions associated with?

1) Inflammation i.e. peritonitis
2) Surgery
3) Infection
4) Endometriosis

20

What is the major complication of adhesions?

Bowel slips between fibrous bridges resulting in:
- Obstruction
- Infarction

****Note this is called an internal hernia*****

21

What is Intussusception?

Telescoping of one segment of bowel into an immediately distal segment

22

What causes intussusception in kids?

1) Secondary lymphoid hyperplasia
2) Rotavirus

23

What causes intussusception in adults?

1) Mass
2) Tumor

24

What are the major complications of Intussusception?

- Obstruction
- Infarction (mesenteric vessels become trapped)

25

What is volvulus?

Complete twisting of a loop of bowel

26

What are secondary causes of bowel obstruction?

1) Foreign body (drug mule)
2) Carcinoma

27

How does malabsorption present in kids?

- Diarrhea
- Failure to thrive

28

What type of stool change is typical of malabsorption?

Steatorrhea

29

What are the three phases of nutrient absorption?

1) Intraluminal digestion (saliva, gastric enzymes, pancreatic enzymes...etc.)
2) Terminal digestion (hydrolysis at the brush border)
3) Transepithelial transport

30

What are the three most common malabsorptive disorders in the US?

1) Celiac sprue
2) Chronic pancreatitis
3) Crohn's Disease