Flashcards in EXAM #2: REVIEW Deck (90)
What is causing the dark urine seen in patients with extravascular hemolysis?
What labs differentiate Dubin-Johnson Syndrome and Rotor Syndrome?
- Normal urine coproporphyrinogen
- Elevated isomer I
- Elevated urine coproporphyrinogen
- Normal isomer I
What are the five normal components of bile?
1) Bile salts
What defect is seen in PFIC-1?
Defect in the canalicular ATPase
What defect is seen in PFIC-2?
Defect in the Bile Salt Export Pump
What defect is seen in PFIC-3?
Defect in the MDR-3 transporter, impairing phosphatidylcholine transport
List five clinical features of the PFICs.
2) Fat malabsorption
3) Fat soluble vitamin deficiency
5) Liver failure
List seven clinical manifestations of bile duct obstruction.
3) Dark urine
List the lab findings in bile duct obstruction.
1) Elevated conjugated bilirubin
2) Decreased urine urobilinogen
3) Elevated: ALP, 5'-NT, and GGT
What diseases is macronodular cirrhosis associated with?
What are the three general manifestations of portal HTN?
2) Congestive splenomegaly
3) Portosystemic shunts
What is acute liver failure?
Liver failure that occurs within 4 weeks of initial symptoms of liver dysfunction
List four clinical signs of hepatorenal syndrome.
2) Increased BUN/Creatinine
3) Low urinary Na+
4) Normal urinary sediment
What are the extrahepatic manifestations of Hepatitis C?
What four factors will increase the likelihood of HCV infection leading to HCC?
4) Old age
What are the microscopic features of acute viral hepatitis?
- Swelling of hepatocytes
- Lobular disarray
What are the microscopic features of chronic viral hepatitis?
- Piecemeal necrosis
- Bridging fibrosis
- Nodular cirrhosis
What microscopic feature is associated with HCV infection?
Lymphoid aggregates in portal tracts
List the clinical manifestations of acute hepatitis.
- Mixed jaundice
- Dark urine
- Elevated liver enzymes
I.e. flu-like illness with mixed jaundice, dark urine, and elevated liver enzymes.
What is an alternate name for Primary Biliary Cirrhosis?
What antibody is associated with PBC?
Anti-mitochondrial antibody (AMA)
List all of the lab findings associated with PBC.
1) Elevated antibodies: AMA, anti-M2, and anti PDH-E2
2) Elevated IgM
3) Elevated ALP/ 5'-NT, and GGT
4) Elevated cholesterol
What are the lab findings associated with PSC?
1) Elevated transaminases
2) Elevated ALP, 5'NT, and GGT
What antibody is most specific to PSC?
What antibodies are specific to autoimmune hepatitis?
What are the features of Type I autoimmune hepatitis?
- Most common
- 10 y/o to elderly affected
- SMA and ANA positive
What are the features of Type II autoimmune hepatitis?
- Less common
- 2-14 y/o effected
- ALKM antibody
- Poor prognosis
What is Type III autoimmune hepatitis?
- Less common
- Effects 30-50 year olds
- Anti-SLA positive
What type of liver injury is seen with Tetracycline?