EXAM #3: PANCREATITIS Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in EXAM #3: PANCREATITIS Deck (45):
1

What is the most common etiology of metabolic acute pancreatitis?

Alcoholism

2

What are the genetic underpinnings of acute pancreatitis?

PRSS1= trypsinogen mutation

SPINK1= mutation in trypsin inhibitor mutation

3

What are the most common causes of mechanically induced acute pancreatitis?

1) Gallstones
2) Trauma

4

What are the vascular etiologies of acute pancreatitis?

1) Shock
2) Atheroembolism
3) Vascuitis

5

What are the infectious etiologies of acute pancreatitis?

1) Mumps
2) Coxsackievirus
3) Mycoplasma peumonia

6

How is acute pancreatitis initiated?

Trypsin activation leading to autodigestion of the pancreas

7

What is the specific serum enzyme that is indicative of acute pancreatitis?

Lipase

8

How does acute pancreatitis present?

- Constant epigastric pain radiating to the back
- Shock

*Full-blown acute pancreatitis is a medical emergency*

9

What causes hypocalcemia seen in acute pancreatitis?

Consumption of Ca++ in soponification of peripancreatic fat

****This is associated with a POOR prognosis

10

What serum lab elevation is indicative of a pancreatic pseudocyst?

Amylase

11

Outline the spectrum of severity in pancreatitis.

1) Acute INTERSTITIAL= trivial inflammation and edema
2) Acute NECROTIZING= extensive necrosis
3) HEMORRHAGIC

12

How do you differentiate between a perforate ulcer and pancreatitis?

Serum lipase

13

What is a pancreatic pseudocyst?

Collection of blood, debris, tissue, and fluid WITHOUT a true epithelial lining

14

List the complications of acute pancreatitis.

1) Shock
2) ARDS
3) Acute renal failure
4) DIC
5) Pancreatic abscess
6) Pancreatic pseudocyst
7) Duodenal obstruction

15

What is the main difference between acute and chronic pancreatitis?

- Acute is reversible
- Chronic is irreversible

****Chronic is caused by relapsing acute pancreatitis*****

16

What factors drive the fibrosis seen in chronic pancreatitis?

TGF-B
PDGF

*Both are induced by chronic inflammation

17

In the US, what is the most common cause of chronic pancreatitis?

Long-term alcohol abuse

18

What is the role of CFTR mutations in chronic pancreatitis?

CF can lead to early onset pancreatitis (+ lung disease)
- CFTR decreased bicarbonate
- Less bicarbonate lead to "slugging" of exocrine pancreas

19

What is the relationship between alcohol and ductal plugs in alcohol induced chronic pancreatitis?

- Alcohol causes increased protein secretion in exocrine pancreas
- Proteins can form "ductal plugs"
- Ductal plugs may calcify

20

What are the buzzwords for the histologic appearance of chronic pancreatitis?

1) Acinar drop out
2) Inflammatory infiltrate
3) Fibrosis
4) Protein/ ductal plugs

21

What are the sequela of chronic pancreatitis?

1) DM--from fibrosis involving the endocrine pancreas
2) Steatorrhea/ fat malabsorption
3) Calcification of the pancreas

22

What disease is associated with congenital pancreatic cysts?

Von-Hippel-Lindau Disease

23

What are the clinical features of Von-Hippel Lindau Disease?

- Mutation in chromosome 3
- Renal cell carcinoma and pheochromocytoma are common
- CYSTS in pancreas, liver, and kidneys
- Angiomas in retina, cerebellum, and brainstem

24

What are the three major types of cystic neoplasia involving the pancreas?

1) Microcystic serous cystadenomas
2) Mucinous cystic tumors
3) Solid pseudopapillary tumor

25

What are the clinical features of microcystic serous cystadenomas?

- Seen in elderly women
- Benign

*Cuboidal epithelum with serous fluid

26

What are the clinical features of mucinous cystic tumors?

- Seen in young women
- Malignant

*Columnar epithelium with mucinous fluid

27

What are Intraductal Papillary Mucinous Neoplasms?

- Intrapapillary mucinous neoplasms are tumors (neoplasms) that grow within the pancreatic ducts (intraductal)
- characterized by the production of thick fluid (mucous) by the tumor cells

28

Where do IPMNs commonly occur?

Head of the pancreas

29

IPMNs: benign or malignant?

Can be benign, borderline malignant, or malignant

*Penetration of the basement membrane= malignant*

30

What is the 4th leading cause of death in the US?

Pancreatic cancer

31

What is the typical presentation of pancreatic cancer?

- Abdominal pain
- Weight loss/ constitutional signs
- Jaundice

32

What tumor markers can be associated with pancreatic cancer?

CEA
CA19-9

33

What modifiable factor increases the risk of pancreatic cancer x3?

Smoking

34

What nonmodifiable factor increases the risk of pancreatic cancer?

Hereditary pancreatitis + Peutz-Jegher's Syndrome i.e. the following mutations:
- STK11
- PRSS1
- SPINK1
- CFTR

35

What genetic mutation is highly associated with the development of pancreatic cancer?

K-RAS

36

What part of the pancreas is most commonly involved in pancreatic cancer?

Head

37

What surgical procedure is used to treat pancreatic cancer?

Whipple procedure

38

What are the three types of gallstones?

1) Cholesterol
2) Pigmented/ bilirubin stones
3) Mixed

39

What causes cholesterol stones?

Supersaturation of cholesterol in the bile

40

What commonly causes acute cholecystitis?

Obstruction of neck of the gallbladder or cystic duct

41

What causes chronic cholecystitis?

Long-standing inflammation of GB

*May or may not be associated with a history of acute cholecystitis

42

What is a Porcelian Gallbladder?

Calcified Gallbladder that is AT RISK FOR CACINOMA

43

What are the major complications of cholecystitis?

1) Bacterial superinfection
2) Perforation/ abscess formation
3) Fistula formation

44

What type of cancer is carcinoma of the gallbladder?

Adenocarcinoma

45

What do you need to remember about carcinoma of the gallbladder?

Indistinguishable from cholelithiasis; thus, it is diagnosed late