EXAM #1: GI NEOPLASIA Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in EXAM #1: GI NEOPLASIA Deck (75)
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1

What type of tumor is the most common in the GI tract?

Adenocarcinoma

2

What site is most commonly affected by neoplasia in the GI system?

Colon

3

What are the most common benign tumors of the small bowel?

1) Adenomas
2) Mesenchymal tumors i.e. GISTs

4

What are the most common malignant tumors of the small bowel?

1) Adenocarcinoma
2) Carcinoids

5

What genetic conditions predipose patients to carcinomas of the small bowel?

1) Familial Adenomatous Polyposis (FAP)
2) Gardner's Syndrome

6

What is an adenoma?

Neoplastic proliferation of glands

7

Where are adenomas in the small bowel most common?

Amupulla of Vater --this is the union of the pancreatic duct and common bile duct

8

What are the clinical features of adenomas?

- Seen in middle age
- Cause occult blood loss
- Can precipitate obstruction/ intussusception

9

Where do most adenocarcinomas occur in the small bowel?

Duodenum

10

What type of pattern do adenocarcinomas grow in?

Napkin ring i.e. encircling

11

What is the major non genetic risk factor for adenocarcinomas?

Crohn's Disease

12

What is a polyp?

Benign mass protruding from the mucosa into the lumen of the gut

13

Are most polyps malignant or non-malignant?

Non-malignant

14

What are the two types of polyps seen in the colon?

1) Adenomatous
2) Hyperplastic

15

What is a hyperplastic polyp?

Hyperplasia of glands

16

What is a Hamartomatous polyps?

A polyp formed by disorganized normal tissue (seen mostly in kids; therefore, called a "Juvenile Polyp")

17

What is an inflammatory polyp?

This is an alternate name for pseudopolyps seen in Ulcerative Colitis

18

What type of polyp is most common?

Hyperplastic

19

Where do most hyperplastic polyps occur?

Rectosigmoid region

20

What are harmatomatous polyps called in kids?

Juvenile polyps

21

What are harmatomatous polyps called in adults?

Retention polyps

22

What are Peustz-Jegher's polyps?

Hamartomatous polyps seen in Peutz-Jegher's Syndrome
- Polyps seen throughout the GI tract (vs. solitary)

23

What is Peutz-Jegher's Syndrome?

- Autosomal Dominant disorder
- Characterized by:
1) Mucocutaneous pigmentation around the mouth (freckles around the mouth)
2) Multiple hamartomatous polyps

24

What gene is mutated in Peutz-Jegher's Syndrome?

STK11

25

What are the hamartomatous polyps of Peutz-Jegher's Syndrome composed of?

1) Connective tissue
2) Smooth muscle

26

What are patients with Peutz-Jegher's Syndrome at risk for?

- Intussusception
- Cancer
1) Colorectal
2) Breast
3) GYN

27

What are the four different types of adenomas?

1) Tubular
2) Tubulovillous
3) Villous
4) Serrate

28

What is the most common type of ademona? What is the association with carcinoma?

Tubular

****Lowest neoplastic potential b/c of "buffering" of the stalk*****

29

Which type of adeoma is most associated with carcinoma?

Villous adenomas

30

What are the three risk factors that confer greatest potential to transition from adenoma to carcinoma?

1) Size greater than 2cm
2) Sessile (flat) growth
3) Villous histology