Flashcards in EXAM #1: BACTERIAL INFECTIONS OF THE GI TRACT Deck (81)
What are the symptoms of Botulism poisoning?
2) Dry mouth
3) Blurred vision
4) Abd. sx
5) Progressive paralysis
What causes Botulism?
Improperly canned (non-acidic food)
When do the symptoms of Botulism start?
12-36 hours after ingestion
Is fever present in Botulinism?
No--only ingested toxin, NOT whole pathogen
What organism causes Botulinism?
List the characteristics of C. botulismsm.
What kind of toxin is the C. botulinum toxin?
A-B Bacterial toxin
What is the MOA of the C. Botulinum toxin?
1) B portion attaches to receptors on motor nerve endings
2) A portion enters nerve cell
3) Toxin blocks release of ACh
What causes Floppy Baby Syndrome?
C. Botulinum spore ingestion
What are the symptoms of Floppy Baby Syndrome?
Constipation followed by generalized paralysis
Where are C. botulinum spores and toxins identifiable in Floppy Baby Syndrome?
How is Botulsim treated?
What is a major adverse effect of Botulism antitoxin administration?
What are the characteristics of Clostridium difficile?
What does Clostridium difficile cause?
Antibiotic associated pseudomembranous colitis
What is the most common cause of nosocomial diarrhea?
How is Clostridium difficile transmitted?
What antibiotic was the first abx to cause pseudomembranous colitis?
What are the most common causes of pseudomembranous colitis today?
2nd and 3rd generation cephalosporins (only b/c they are the most frequently used)
What are pseudomembranes?
white-yellow plaques on the colonic mucosa
What is a severe complication of Clostridium difficile infection?
How do you tell the difference between adverse diarrhea with abx administration vs. Clostridium difficile?
Clostridium difficile toxin present in the stool
How is Clostridium difficile treated?
1) Withdraw antibiotic
2) Oral metronidazole* or vancomycin
3) Fluid replacement
What is Shigellosis?
Dysentery i.e. bloody diarrhea
List the characteristics of Shigella dysenteriae.
How does Shigella dysenteriae appear on MacConkey agar?
Colorless b/c non-lactose fermenting
How is Shigella dysenteriae distinguished from Salmonella?
1) Do NOT produce H2S
2) Non-glucose fermenting
What infective dose is required for Shigella dysenteriae infection? How does this compare to Salmonella?
Shigella dysenteriae= low
What type of diarrhea is seen with Shigella dysenteriae?