EXAM #1: BACTERIAL INFECTIONS OF THE GI TRACT Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in EXAM #1: BACTERIAL INFECTIONS OF THE GI TRACT Deck (81)
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1

What are the symptoms of Botulism poisoning?

1) Dizziness
2) Dry mouth
3) Blurred vision
4) Abd. sx
5) Progressive paralysis

2

What causes Botulism?

Improperly canned (non-acidic food)

3

When do the symptoms of Botulism start?

12-36 hours after ingestion

4

Is fever present in Botulinism?

No--only ingested toxin, NOT whole pathogen

5

What organism causes Botulinism?

C. botulinum

6

List the characteristics of C. botulismsm.

Gram positive
Spore forming
Rod-shaped
Anaerobic

7

What kind of toxin is the C. botulinum toxin?

A-B Bacterial toxin

8

What is the MOA of the C. Botulinum toxin?

1) B portion attaches to receptors on motor nerve endings
2) A portion enters nerve cell
3) Toxin blocks release of ACh

9

What causes Floppy Baby Syndrome?

C. Botulinum spore ingestion

10

What are the symptoms of Floppy Baby Syndrome?

Constipation followed by generalized paralysis

11

Where are C. botulinum spores and toxins identifiable in Floppy Baby Syndrome?

Feces

12

How is Botulsim treated?

Antitoxin administration

13

What is a major adverse effect of Botulism antitoxin administration?

Serum sickness

14

What are the characteristics of Clostridium difficile?

Gram positive
Spore forming
Rod-shaped
Anaerobic

15

What does Clostridium difficile cause?

Antibiotic associated pseudomembranous colitis

16

What is the most common cause of nosocomial diarrhea?

Clostridium difficile

17

How is Clostridium difficile transmitted?

Fecal-oral

18

What antibiotic was the first abx to cause pseudomembranous colitis?

Clindamycin

19

What are the most common causes of pseudomembranous colitis today?

2nd and 3rd generation cephalosporins (only b/c they are the most frequently used)

20

What are pseudomembranes?

white-yellow plaques on the colonic mucosa

21

What is a severe complication of Clostridium difficile infection?

Toxic megacolon

22

How do you tell the difference between adverse diarrhea with abx administration vs. Clostridium difficile?

Clostridium difficile toxin present in the stool

23

How is Clostridium difficile treated?

1) Withdraw antibiotic
2) Oral metronidazole* or vancomycin
3) Fluid replacement

*Preferred

24

What is Shigellosis?

Dysentery i.e. bloody diarrhea

25

List the characteristics of Shigella dysenteriae.

Gram negative
Rods
Non-lactose fermenting

26

How does Shigella dysenteriae appear on MacConkey agar?

Colorless b/c non-lactose fermenting

27

How is Shigella dysenteriae distinguished from Salmonella?

1) Do NOT produce H2S
2) Non-glucose fermenting
3) Non-motile

28

What infective dose is required for Shigella dysenteriae infection? How does this compare to Salmonella?

Shigella dysenteriae= low

Salmonella= high

29

What type of diarrhea is seen with Shigella dysenteriae?

Bloody diarrhea

30

What is the typical symptom progression in Shigella dysenteriae infection?

1) Fever, abdominal cramping and diarrhea
- Watery diarrhea at first
- Bloody/ mucousy diarrhea