Flashcards in EXAM #1: PATHOLOGY OF THE ESOPHAGUS Deck (55)
What is the definition of odnophasia?
What should you think when a patient complains of odnophasia?
What is the pathologic feature of Achalasia?
Failure of relaxation of the LES
What are the symptoms of Achalasia?
What causes Achalasia?
2) Degenerative changes leading to decreased myenteric ganglia
3) Secondary causes
What morphology is seen in Achalasia?
Dilated esophagus proximal to the LES
What are patients with Achalasia at risk for?
4) Diverticula formation
What disease can cause Secondary Achalasia?
(Trypanosoma cruzi --parasite-- that destroys ganglion cells)
List the secondary causes of Achalasia.
1) Chagas Disease
2) Disorders of the vagal dorsal motor nuclei
3) Diabetic neuropathy
4) Infiltration disorders
What are the two types of Hiatal Hernias?
Which of the hiatal hernias is more dangerous?
Paraesophageal--risk of strangulation
What are the symptoms of a hiatal hernia?
What is the definition of a diverticula?
Outpouching of the GI tract
What are the three different types of diverticula seen in the esophagus? Which are false and which are true?
1) Zenker- False
2) Traction- True
3) Epiphernic- True
Where is a Zenker diverticula?
Proximal--immediately above the UES
Where are Traction diverticula?
Midportion of the esophagus
Where are Epiphrenic diverticula?
Distal--just above the LES
What is the primary presenting symptom of an esophageal diverticula?
What can cause a Traction Diverticula?
Mediastinal lymph nodes in TB "pulling" the esophagus out
What is a Mallory-Weiss tear?
Longitudinal tear at the gastroesophageal junction
What are the common causes of Mallory-Weiss tears?
2) Bulemia nervosa
3) Hyperemesis gravidarum
What happens when there is rupture of a Mallory-Weiss tear?
What is the primary symptom of Mallory Weiss tear?
Outline the anatomy of an esophageal varice.
What are the most common causes of esophageal varices?
What are the symptoms of an esophageal varice?
Non prior to rupture, then rapidly fatal with SEVERE hematemesis
What is esophagitis?
Inflammation of the esophagus
What are the symptoms of esophagitis?
List the specific causes of Esophagitis.
1) Reflux esopagitis
2) Barrett's Esophagus
3) Infections/ chemical causes
4) Eosinophilic esophagitis