EXAM #1: PATHOLOGY OF THE ESOPHAGUS Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in EXAM #1: PATHOLOGY OF THE ESOPHAGUS Deck (55)
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1

What is the definition of odnophasia?

Painful swallowing

2

What should you think when a patient complains of odnophasia?

Infectious cause

3

What is the pathologic feature of Achalasia?

Failure of relaxation of the LES

4

What are the symptoms of Achalasia?

Progressive dysphagia

5

What causes Achalasia?

1) Idiopathic
2) Degenerative changes leading to decreased myenteric ganglia
3) Secondary causes

6

What morphology is seen in Achalasia?

Dilated esophagus proximal to the LES

7

What are patients with Achalasia at risk for?

1) SCC
2) Aspiration
3) Esophagitis
4) Diverticula formation
5) Obstruction

8

What disease can cause Secondary Achalasia?

Chagas Disease

(Trypanosoma cruzi --parasite-- that destroys ganglion cells)

9

List the secondary causes of Achalasia.

1) Chagas Disease
2) Disorders of the vagal dorsal motor nuclei
3) Diabetic neuropathy
4) Infiltration disorders

10

What are the two types of Hiatal Hernias?

1) Sliding*
2) Paraesophageal

*Most common

11

Which of the hiatal hernias is more dangerous?

Paraesophageal--risk of strangulation

12

What are the symptoms of a hiatal hernia?

GERD

13

What is the definition of a diverticula?

Outpouching of the GI tract

14

What are the three different types of diverticula seen in the esophagus? Which are false and which are true?

1) Zenker- False
2) Traction- True
3) Epiphernic- True

15

Where is a Zenker diverticula?

Proximal--immediately above the UES

16

Where are Traction diverticula?

Midportion of the esophagus

17

Where are Epiphrenic diverticula?

Distal--just above the LES

18

What is the primary presenting symptom of an esophageal diverticula?

Halatosis

19

What can cause a Traction Diverticula?

Mediastinal lymph nodes in TB "pulling" the esophagus out

20

What is a Mallory-Weiss tear?

Longitudinal tear at the gastroesophageal junction

21

What are the common causes of Mallory-Weiss tears?

1) Alcoholics
2) Bulemia nervosa
3) Hyperemesis gravidarum

22

What happens when there is rupture of a Mallory-Weiss tear?

Booerhave Syndrome

23

What is the primary symptom of Mallory Weiss tear?

Hematemesis

24

Outline the anatomy of an esophageal varice.

N/A

25

What are the most common causes of esophageal varices?

1) Alcoholism
2) Schistosmiasis

26

What are the symptoms of an esophageal varice?

Non prior to rupture, then rapidly fatal with SEVERE hematemesis

27

What is esophagitis?

Inflammation of the esophagus

28

What are the symptoms of esophagitis?

Dysphagia
GERD
Hematemesis
Melena

29

List the specific causes of Esophagitis.

1) Reflux esopagitis
2) Barrett's Esophagus
3) Infections/ chemical causes
4) Eosinophilic esophagitis

30

What causes reflux esophagitis?

Decreased efficacy of antireflux mechanisms i.e. LES tone