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Flashcards in EXAM #1: REVIEW Deck (128)
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1

What is the staining method that is used to diagnose Barrett's Esophagus?

Alcain Blue, which stains mucous secreting goblet cells blue

2

What third of the esophagus is more likely to harbor a squamous cell carcinoma?

Middle 1/3

3

At what vertebral level is the esophageal hiatus located?

T10

4

What lymph nodes are most likely to be affected by metastasis from the inferior esophagus?

Celiac trunk

5

What two surgical procedures can be done for refractory PUD?

1) Surgical excision of the pylorus
2) Selective vagotomy

6

Outline the borders of the Gastrinoma Triangle.

1) Junction of the cystic duct and common hepatic duct
2) Junction of the neck and body of the pancreas
3) Junction between 2nd and 3rd part of the duodenum

7

What gross change of the stomach is seen in Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome?

Prominent rugae due to increased parietal cell mass

8

List the four histologic features of Gluten Enteropathy.

1) Disarrayed enterocytes
2) Villous atrophy
3) Crypt hyperplasia
4) Inflammation of the lamina propria

9

What two structures may be damaged if their perforation of a posterior duodenal ulcer?

1) Pancreas
2) Gastroduodenal a.

10

What is the result of an anterior duodenal ulcer perforation?

Air accumulation between the diaphragm and anterior wall of the liver

11

What is the eponym of the watershed area of the colon that is most prone to ischemia?

"Critical Point of Griffiths"

12

What are the three mechanisms that cause esophageal stenosis?

1) Sequestration of respiratory tissue elements
2) Myenteric plexus damage that causes hypertrophy
3) Mucosal diaphragm

13

What vascular anomaly can cause esophageal stenosis?

Lusorian a.
- 4th brach on the left side of the aortic arch
- Retroesophageal course to become the RIGHT subclavian a.

14

What nerve supplies the rectum inferior to the pectinate line?

Inferior rectal n.

15

What is amylopectin?

Plant starch with alpha-1,4 glycosidic bonds and alpha-1,6 branches

16

What are the specific oligosaccharides that are the end products of pancreatic alpha-amylase?

1) Maltose
2) Maltotriose
3) Alpha-limit dextrins

17

What prevents pancreatic lipase from being denatured by bile acids?

Colipase

18

What are the four physical mechanisms that prevent infection of the GI tract?

1) Acidity of the stomach
2) Peristalsis
3) Detergent action of bile
4) Mucus secretion

19

List the four major locations of GALT.

1) Peyer's patches
2) Appendix
3) Lymphoid aggregates in the large intestine
4) Lamina propria

20

What are the two important functions that IgA plays in immunity?

1) Opzonization
2) Anti-parasite immunity--facilitates eosinophil degranulation

21

What two malignancies are patients with Celiac Disease at risk for?

1) GI Lymphoma
2) GI Carcinoma

22

What drug can be used to treat Crohn's Disease?

Infliximab, an anti-TNF-a monoclonal antibody

23

When do the symptoms of Botulism start?

12-36 hours post ingestion

24

What are the essential identifying characteristics of C. botulinum?

Gram positive bacillus (rod) that is:
- Anaerobic
- Spore-forming

25

Do the major characteristics of C. diff differ from C. botulinum?

No

26

Aside from supportive therapy and stopping the offending agent, how is C. diff colitis treated?

Oral metronidazole or vanomycin

****Note that metronidazole is preferred*****

27

What kind of diarrhea is associated with Shigellosis?

Bloody

28

What are the identifying characteristics of Shigella dysenteraie?

Gram negative bacillus that is:
- Non-lactose fermenting

29

What are the 3x characteristics that distinguish Shigella from Salmonella?

1) Non-glucose fermenting
2) No H2S production
3) Non-motile

I.e. Salmonella ferments glucose (not lactose), produces H2S, and is motile

30

What is the preferred treatment for Shigellosis?

A fluoroquinolone i.e. CIPROFLOXACIN