EXAM #2: OSTEOPATHIC CONSIDERATIONS IN GI Flashcards Preview

Gastrointestinal System > EXAM #2: OSTEOPATHIC CONSIDERATIONS IN GI > Flashcards

Flashcards in EXAM #2: OSTEOPATHIC CONSIDERATIONS IN GI Deck (38)
Loading flashcards...
1
Q
What nerve provides 75% of the PNS influence on the body?
A
CN X (Vagus)
2
Q
What nerves compose the cranial portion of the PNS?
A
CN III, VII, IX, X
3
Q
What nerves compose the sacral portion of the PNS?
A
S2, S3, S4
4
Q
What are the effects of increased PNS stimulation on the glands, GI, Liver, Gallbladder/ ducts, GI arterioles?
A
Glands= copious secretions

GI= stimulation of peristalsis and sphincter relaxation

Liver= promote glycogen synthesis

Gallbladder= contraction

GI arterioles= NO innervation
5
Q
What ganglia are associated with the SNS?
A
T1 - L2
6
Q
How does the SNS supply the head and upper extremity?
A
Cervical ganglia (CN II, V, VII)
7
Q
What is the SNS supply to the lower extremity?
A
Lumbar splanchnic nerves
8
Q
What is the SNS effect on the Glands, Blood Vessels, GI, Liver, Gallbladder, and GI arterioles?
A
Glands= decrease secretion

BV= constriction

GI= decrease peristalsis and increase sphincter tone

Liver= promote glycogen breakdown

Gallbladder= relax

GI arterioles= constriction
9
Q
What type of tone is typically seen during disease or trauma?
A
Increased SNS tone
10
Q
What are the effects of increased SNS tone in a disease state?
A
1) Vasoconstriction leading to decreased nutritional supply to tissue
2) Thickened secretions causing tissue congestion
3) Decreased lymphatic drainage
11
Q
Clinically, what is the osteopathic viewpoint on the clinical impact of increased SNS tone in disease?
A
Impaired medication delivery
12
Q
How do patients present with lymphatic congestion in regards to their appearance and palpatory ques?
A
- Appearance= uncomfortable
- Palpation= boggy/soggy
13
Q
What is proper lymphatic motion dependent on?
A
Contractions of the diaphragm
14
Q
What is the most important diaphragm to treat to improve lymphatic flow?
A
TI
15
Q
What types of receptors relay the stretch that happens in the GI tract?
A
- Pacinian corpusles
- Free nerve endings
16
Q
Describe the viscero-somatic relationship.
A
- Visceral pain is carried by visceral afferent"
- There is "spill-over" into the somatic afferents
17
Q
What thoracic levels are associated with the Upper GI System?
A
T5-11
18
Q
What throacic levels are associated with the Lower GI System?
A
T9-L2
19
Q
In the thoracic vertebrae, what type of SD is commonly seen with a chronic GI issue?
A
- Extension
- Rotation
- Sidebending

All TOWARD the SAME side of the organ involved.
20
Q
What is post-op ileus a consequence of?
A
Viscero-visceral reflex in response to handling of the bowel during during surgery
21
Q
What ganglia will afferents from the thoracic splancnic nerves go to?
A
Celiac ganglion
22
Q
What ganglion will afferents from lumbar splancnic nerves go to?
A
Inferior mesenteric ganglion
23
Q
What is the outcome of hyperactivity of both the SNS and PNS?
A
IBS
24
Q
What are the three main elements that will hinder lymph flow?
A
1) Flattened diaphragm
2) Fascial torsion
3) Thoracic inlet impairment
25
Q
What lumbar segments correspond to the left crus?
A
L1- L2
26
Q
What lumbar segments correspond to the right crus?
A
L1-L3
27
Q
What viscero-somatic reflexes correspond to the stomach?
A
SNS= T5-9 on left
PNS= OA
28
Q
What viscero-somatic reflexes correspond to the gallbladder?
A
SNS= T9
PNS= OA
29
Q
What viscero-somatic reflexes correspond to the liver?
A
SNS= T6-T9
PNS= OA
30
Q
What viscero-somatic reflexes correspond to the pancreas?
A
SNS= T5-T11
PNS= OA
31
Q
What viscero-somatic reflexes correspond to the small intestine?
A
SNS= T9-T11
PNS= OA
32
Q
What viscero-somatic reflexes correspond to the ascending and transverse colon?
A
SNS= T10-T12
PNS= OA
33
Q
What viscero-somatic reflexes correspond to the descending colon and rectum?
A
SNS= L1-2
PNS= S2-4
34
Q
What viscero-somatic reflexes correspond to the appendix?
A
SNS= T12 right with rib
PNS= OA
35
Q
What viscero-somatic reflexes correspond to regional ileitis?
A
T10-T12
36
Q
What viscero-somatic reflexes correspond to chronic constipation?
A
Erector spinae mass in the mid-lumbar region
37
Q
Where can the gallbladder refer pain?
A
Right shoulder
38
Q
Where can the pancreas refer pain?
A
Back