EXAM #2: GI BLEEDING Flashcards Preview

Gastrointestinal System > EXAM #2: GI BLEEDING > Flashcards

Flashcards in EXAM #2: GI BLEEDING Deck (49):
1

What delineates between upper and lower GI bleeding?

Trietz angle

2

What does occult bleeding indicate?

Slow bleeding/ low volume

3

What is melena and indication of?

UGI bleed
- Esophagus
- Stomach
- Duodenum

4

What is hematochezia?

Dark red blood or dark maroon colored blood

5

What does hematochezia indicate?

- Usually lower GI bleed
- Potentially v. fast UGI

6

What do you need to remember about stool color?

DO NOT USE STOOL COLOR TO R/O ORIGIN

7

What is the typical manifestation of chronic GI bleeding?

Anemia

8

What is the typical presentation of acute GI bleeding?

Signs and symptoms of volume loss

9

How much does the blood pressure need to drop when changing positions for positive orthostatic changes?

20 mm/Hg (systolic), also:
- 10 mm/Hg diastolic
- HR increase 10 bpm

10

What change will be heard with bowel sounds in a UGI?

Increased bowel sounds--blood is an irritant

11

Review the first case study in the ppt. How sick is the patient? Why?

V. sick
- Hx of HTN and hypotensive
- Beta blocker and tachycardia
- Orthostatic changes

****Significant hypovolemia*****

12

What is the DDx of a UGI?

1) PUD
2) Erosive esophagitis/ gastritis/ duodenitis i.e. NSAIDs or H. pylori
3) Gastroesophageal varices

13

What is GAVE?

Gastric antral vascular ectasia
- Dilated small vessels in the antrum of the stomach

14

What is the buzzword associated with GAVE?

Watermelon Stomach

15

What is a cause of UGI that is associated with very high mortality?

Aortoenteric fistula
- Abnormal connection between aorta and intestines
- Typically occurs secondary to AAA repair

16

What is a Dieulafoy lesion?

- Abnormal arterial GI vessel
- V. superficial
- Life-threatening bleeding results

17

What is the most common etiology of lower GI bleed, especially in the elderly?

Diverticulosis

18

List the three most common causes of Lower GI Bleed.

1) Diverticulosis
2) Angiectasias
3) Hemorrhoids

19

What two diseases increase the rate of Angiectasias?

1) AAA
2) Renal failure

20

What is Osler-Weber Rendu?

Genetic disorder that causes diffuse vascular dysplasia
- Increases the risk for bleeding
- Also known as Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangectasia (HHT)
- Autosomal dominant inheritance

21

What two diseases can cause hyperpigmentation of the oral mucosa that can predispose one to GI bleeding?

1) Osler-Weber Rendu/ HHT
2) Peutz-Jeghers Syndrome

22

What must be performed during the PE if you suspect volume loss in a patient?

Orthostatic vital signs

23

What are the predictors of UGI?

1) Less than 50 y/o
2) Melenic stool
3) BUN/Creatinine ratio greater than 30

24

What are the indications for an NG tube in the face of GI Bleeding?

1) Hematemesis
2) Frank hematochezia

Note that 15-20% of patients with upper GI bleeding will have a negative NG aspirate--keep in differential even if negative.

25

How do you begin the resuscitation of a patient with significant hypovolemia?

1) IV access (bilateral large bore)
2) Crystalloids
3) Anticipate need for blood transfusion

26

When do you need to transfuse a patient with a GI bleed?

Hgb less than or equal to 7 g/dL

27

What is AIMS65? What is it used for?

Risk score that predicts mortality, length of stay, and cost
- Albumin less than 3
- INR greater than 1.5
- AMS
- Systolic less than 90 mm/Hg
- 65+ y/o

28

What is the Rockall Scoring System?

Predictor of mortality in UGIB

29

What is the utility of the Blatchford Score?

This score predicts the NEED for ENDOSCOPIC THERAPY

30

Once you have resuscitated a patient with a non-variceal UGIB, how can you start pharmoctherapy?

IV PPI
- Facilitates clot formation
- stop once diagnostic endoscopy has been performed

31

What procedure is always indicated for patients with a suspected UGIB?

Endoscopy (within 24 hours)

32

What is the purpose of endoscopoy?

1) Confirmation of diagnosis
2) Risk stratification
3) Speeds access to therapy

33

When is endoscopic therapy required? What determines this requirement?

Stigmata i.e. characteristics:
1) Active bleeding
2) Nonbleeding visible vessel

****Treating these is done to prevent rebleeding*****

34

What are the stigmata that don't require endoscopic therapy?

1) Adherent clot
2) Flat pigmented spot
3) Clean base

35

How is hemostasis achieved with endoscopy?

1) Epi injection
2) Electrocoagulation
3) Clipping (mechanical)

Often combination therapy is employed.

36

In a patient with CAD that is on ASA, when should ASA be re-started following a UGIB?

As soon as the bleeding as been resolved

37

What is the mnemonic for remembering the clinical features of variceal bleeding?

1/3
- Occurs in 1/3 of patients with cirrhosis
- 1/3 are initially fatal
- 1/3 rebleed in 6 weeks
- 1/3 survive a year

38

What is the mnemonic to remember how to manage variceal bleeding?

VARICEALB

V= Vasoconstrictor
A= Antibiotics
R= Resuscitation
IC= ICU level care
E= Endoscopy
AL= Alternative
B= Beta blockers

39

What is the common vasoconstrictor used to treat Variceal bleeding?

Terlipressin

40

Why are ABX used in Variceal bleeding?

- Reduce infection
- Reduces rebleeding

41

When should endoscopy be performed in variceal bleeding?

ASAP after resuscitation

42

What is the "alternative" rescue technique used to treat variceal bleeding?

TIPS

Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt

43

What type of beta-blocker should be used to treat Variceal bleeding?

Nonselective

44

What are the predictors of severe LGIB?

1) HR greater than 100
2) SBP less than 115
3) Syncope
4) Nontender abdominal exam
5) 2+ comorbid conditions

45

What are the three major risk factors for mortality in LGIB?

1) Age
2) Intestinal ischemia
3) Comorbid illness

46

What do you do a colonoscopy in LGIB?

Unlike UGIB, urgent colonscopy is NOT required

47

What is the alternative study to a colonscopy in a LGIB?

Angiography

Note that the advantage of this is that IR can coil this and provide definitive treatment.

48

When is surgery required for LGIB?

1) SEVERE bleeding
- Requires more than 6 units of blood

49

What procedure is indicated in obscure GI bleeding?

Capsule endoscopy