Exam 2 - Chapter 9: Blood, lymph, and immune systems (by term) Flashcards Preview

Medical Terminology > Exam 2 - Chapter 9: Blood, lymph, and immune systems (by term) > Flashcards

Flashcards in Exam 2 - Chapter 9: Blood, lymph, and immune systems (by term) Deck (83)
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1
Q

aden/o

A

Combining form of “gland”

2
Q

agglutin/o

A

Combining form of “clumping” or “gluing”

3
Q

bas/o

A

Combining form of “basic, alkaline”

4
Q

blast/o

A

Combining form of “embryonic cell”

5
Q

chromo

A

Combining form of “color”

6
Q

eosin/o

A

Combining form of “rose-colored”

7
Q

erythr/o

A

Combining form of “red”

8
Q

granul/o

A

Combining form of “granule”

9
Q

hem/o and hemat/o

A

Combining forms of “blood”

10
Q

immun/o

A

Combining form of “immune” or “immunity”

11
Q

kary/o and nucleo

A

Combining forms of “nucleus”

12
Q

leuk/o

A

Combining form of “white”

13
Q

lymphaden/o

A

Combining form of “lymph gland” or “lymph node”

14
Q

lymph/o

A

Combining form of “lymph”

15
Q

lymphangi/o

A

Combining form of “lymph vessel”

16
Q

morph/o

A

Combining form of “shape”

17
Q

myel/o

A

Combining form of “bone marrow” or sometimes “spinal cord”

18
Q

neutr/o

A

Combining form of “neutral” or “neither”

19
Q

phag/o

A

Combining form of “eating” or “swallowing”

20
Q

plas/o

A

Combining form of “formation” or “growth”

21
Q

poikil/o

A

Combining form of “varied” or “irregular”

22
Q

reticul/o

A

Combining form of “net” or “mesh”

23
Q

ser/o

A

Combining form of “serum”

24
Q

sider/o

A

Combining form of “iron”

25
Q

splen/o

A

Combining form of “spleen”

26
Q

thromb/o

A

Combining form of “blood clot”

27
Q

thym/o

A

Combining form of “thymus gland”

28
Q

xen/o

A

Combining form of “foreign” or “strange”

29
Q

-blast

A

Suffix for “embryonic cell”

30
Q

-emia

A

Suffix for “blood condition”

31
Q

-globin

A

Suffix for “protein”

32
Q

-graft

A

Suffix for “transplantation”

33
Q

-osis

A

Suffix for “abnormal condition,” but generally means there is an abnormal increase in some substance

34
Q

-penia

A

Suffix for “decrease” or “deficiency”

35
Q

-phil

A

Suffix for “an attraction for”

36
Q

-phoresis

A

Suffix for “carrying” or “transmission”

37
Q

-phylaxis

A

Suffix for “protection”

38
Q

-poiesis

A

Suffix for “formation” or “production”

39
Q

-stasis

A

Suffix for “standing still”

40
Q

a-

A

Prefix for “without” or “not”

41
Q

allo-

A

Prefix for “other” or “differing from the normal”

42
Q

aniso-

A

Prefix for “unequal” or “dissimilar”

43
Q

iso-

A

Prefix for “same” or “equal”

44
Q

macro-

A

Prefix for “large”

45
Q

micro-

A

Prefix for “small”

46
Q

mono-

A

Prefix for “one”

47
Q

poly-

A

Prefix for “many” or “much”

48
Q

disseminated intravascular coagulation

A

Abnormal activation of the proteins involved in blood coagulation, causing small blood clots to form in vessels cutting off oxygen supply to distal tissues.

49
Q

graft rejection

A

process in which a patient’s immune system attacks a transplanted organ or tissue

50
Q

graft-versus-host disease

A

complication that occurs following a stem cell or bone marrow transplant in which the transplant poduces antibodies against the recipient’s organs that can be sever enough to cause death

51
Q

hematoma

A

localized accumulation of blood, usually clotted, in an organ, space, or tissue due to a break in or severing of a blood vessel

52
Q

hemoglobinopathy

A

any disorder caused by abnormalities in the hemoglobin molecule

53
Q

lyphadenopathy

A

any disease of the lymph nodes

54
Q

lymphedema

A

swelling, primarily in a single arm of leg, due to an accumulation of lymph within tissues caused by obstruction or disease in the lymph vessels

55
Q

multiple myeloma

A

malignant tumor of plasma cells (cells that help the body fight infection by producing antibodies) in the bone marrow

56
Q

sepsis

A

presence of bacteria or other toxins in the blood, also called blood poisoning

57
Q

systemic lupus erythematosus

A

widespread autoimmune disease that may affect the skin, brain, kidneys, and joints and causes chronic inflammation

58
Q

thrombocythemia

A

overproduction of platelets, leading to thrombosis or bleeding disorders due to platelet malformations

59
Q

thrombocytopenia

A

abnormal disease of platelets caused by a low production of platelets in bone marrow OR by increased destruction of platelets in the blood vessels (intravascular), spleen (extravascular), or liver (extravascular)

60
Q

von Willebrand disease

A

Bleeding disorder caused by a deficiency of von Willebrand factor, a “sticky protein that lines blood vessels and reacts with platelets to forma plug that leads to clot formation

61
Q

immunotherapy

A

any form of treatment that alters, enhances, stimulates, or restores the body’s natural immune mechanisms to treat disease

62
Q

allergy injections

A

injections with increasing strengths of the offending antigen given over a period of months or years to increase tolerance to an antigen responsible for severe allergies

63
Q

biological immunotherapy

A

use of immune system stimulators to enhance the immune response in the treatment of certain forms of cancer, rheumatoid arthritis, and Crohn disease,

64
Q

bone marrow aspiration

A

removal of a small sample of bone marrow using a thin aspirating needle (usually from the pelvis) for microscopic examination

65
Q

bone marrow transplant

A

infusion of healthy bone marrow stem cells after the diseased bone marrow is destroyed by chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy, used to treat leukemia, aplastic anemia, and certain cancers

66
Q

autologous bone marrow transplant

A

infusion of healthy bone marrow stem cells after the diseased bone marrow is destroyed, but specifically that the patient’s own bone marrow or stem cells are being used

67
Q

homologous bone marrow transplant

A

infusion of healthy bone marrow stem cells after the diseased bone marrow is destroyed, but specifically that the bone marrow was taken from a compatible donor

68
Q

lymphadenectomy

A

removal of lymph nodes, especially in surgical procedures performed to remove malignant tissue

69
Q

sentinel node excision

A

removal of the first node that receives drainage from the cancer-containing area and the node most likely to contain malignant cells

70
Q

transfusion

A

infusion of blood or blood products from one person to another person

71
Q

antinuclear antibody

A

test to identify antibodies that attack the nucleus of the individual’s own cody cells (presence of ANAs tells the physician to explore possible autoimmune diseases)

72
Q

blood culture

A

test to determine the presence of pathogens in the bloodstream

73
Q

complete blood count

A

series of tests that include hemoglobin, hematocrit, red and white blood cell counts, platelet count, and differential count

74
Q

monospot

A

nonspecific rapid serological test for the presence of the heterophile anti-body, which develops several days after infection by Epstein-Barr virus, the organism that caused infectious mononucleosis

75
Q

partial thromboplastin time

A

test that measures the length of time it takes blood to clot, screens for deficiencies of certain clotting factors

76
Q

prothrombin time

A

test that measures the time it takes for prothrombin to form a clot

77
Q

Shilling test

A

test used to diagnose pernicious anemia by determining if the body properly absorbs vitamin B12 through the digestive tract

78
Q

bone marrow magnetic resonance imagine

A

highly sensitive imaging procedure that detects lesions and changes in bone tissue and bone marrow, especially in multiple myeloma

79
Q

lymphangiography

A

visualization of lymphatic channels and lymph nodes using a contrast medium to determine blockages or other pathologies of the lymph system

80
Q

lymphoscintigraphy

A

introduction of a radioactive tracer in the lymph channels to determine lymph flow, identify obstructions, and locate the sentinel node

81
Q

antifibrinolytics

A

medication that neutralizes fibrinolytic chemicals in the mucous membranes of the mouth, nose, and urinary tract to prevent the breakdown of blood clots (medication for hemopheliacs)

82
Q

erythropoesis

A

red blood cell development

83
Q

diapedesis

A

the process by which white blood cells migrate through tissue walls