Exploring Psychology-Chapter 1 Flashcards Preview

Psychology 101-Summer 2015 Paula Frioli-Peters > Exploring Psychology-Chapter 1 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Exploring Psychology-Chapter 1 Deck (106):
1

Being randomly assigned to the experimental group in a research project involves being assigned to:

The group in which participants are representative of people in general.

2

Who highlighted the reproductive advantages of environmentally adaptive traits?

Charles Darwin

3

Efforts to discover whether the intelligence of children is more heavily influenced by their biology or by their home environments are most directly relevant to the debate regarding:

Nature and nature.

4

Contemporary psychology is best described as the science of:

Behavior and mental processes.

5

If psychologists discovered that wealthy people are less satisfied with their marriages than poor people are, this would indicate that wealth and marital satisfaction are:

Negatively correlated.

6

A questioning attitude regarding psychologist's assumptions and hidden values best illustrates:

Critical thinking.

7

Innate ability is to learned skill as:

Nature is to nurture.

8

By suggesting that nature works on what nature endows, psychologists highlight the fact that we are biologically endowed with a capacity for:

Learning and adaptation.

9

By testing their predictions with the observational method of science, psychologists are using an:

Empirical approach.

10

In a written report of their research, psychologists specify exactly how anxiety is assessed, thus providing their readers with an:

Operational definition.

11

The perception that psychological research finding merely verify our commonsense understanding is most clearly facilitated by:

Hindsight bias.

12

Professor Ober carefully observes and records the behaviors of children in their classrooms in order to track the development of their social and intellectual skills. Professor Ober is most clearly engaged in:

Naturalistic Observation.

13

The specialist most likely to have a medical degree is a:

Psychiatrist.

14

Early behaviorists such as John B. Watson would have considered the introspective study of self-esteem to be:

An unscientific method.

15

Dr. Wilson attributes the delinquent behaviors of many teen to the pressures associated with being members of street gangs. Her account best illustrates a:

Social-cultural perspective.

16

In a psychological experiment, the experimental factor that is manipulated by the investigator is called the:

Independent variable.

17

Correlational research is most useful for purposes of:

Prediction.

18

The case study is a research method in which:

A single individual is studies in great depth.

19

Which perspective would focus on the extent to which different parenting styles are encouraged among various ethnic groups?

Social-cultural.

20

To asses the impact of test difficulty on persistence of effort, researchers plan to give one group of children relatively easy tests and another group more difficult tests. To reduce the chance that the children in one group are more intelligent than the other, the researchers make use of:

Random assignment.

21

Jana has low self esteem because she is often teased for being overweight. Appreciating the complexity of Jana's difficulties requires:

A biopsychosocial approach.

22

Akira believes that her son has become a good student because she frequently praises his learning efforts. Her belief best illustrates a:

Behavioral perspective.

23

Which of the following is not a part of the same group?
a. case study
b. naturalistic observation
c. survey
d. experimentation

Expiramentation.

24

A negative correlation between degree of wealth and likelihood of suffering from a psychological disorder would indicate that:

People who are poor are more likely to have a psychological disorder that are wealthy people.

25

For no apparent reason, Adam has recently begun to feel so tense and anxious that he frequently stays home from work. It would be best for Adam to contact what type of psychologist?

Clinical.

26

The group exposed to a newly created drug that is being tested in an experiment is called the:

Experimental group.

27

Professor Lopez believes that sever depression results primarily from an imbalanced diet and abnormal brain chemistry. Professor Lopez favors a _______ perspective on depression.

Neuroscience.

28

Researchers use experiments rather than other research methods in order to isolate:

Cause from effects.

29

To assess the influence of self-esteem on interpersonal attraction, researchers either insulted or complimented students about their physical appearance just before they went on a blind date. In this research, the dependent variable was:

Insults or compliments.

30

Which research method provides the best way of assessing whether cigarette smoking boots mental alertness?

Expirament.

31

Our tendency to believe we know more than we do, illustrates:

Overconfidence.

32

Critical thinking is smart thinking that involves:

Evaluating evidence.

33

A factor other than the independent variable that might produce an effect in an experiment is called a:

Confounding variable.

34

If participants in the experiment group of a drug treatment study are much younger than the participants in the control group, the age of the research participants is a:

Confounding variable.

35

A testable prediction is often implied by a theory called a:

Hypothesis.

36

Different accounts of the same behavior that together give us a more complete understanding represent different:

Levels of analysis.

37

The distinctive feature of the psychodynamic perspective is its emphasis on:

Unconscious conflicts.

38

Edward Titchener is to structuralism as William James is to:

Functionalism.

39

The scientific attitude requires an open minded humility because it involves a willingness to:

Recognize the errors in our own ideas.

40

The biopsychosocial approach provides an understanding of social-cultural influences integrated within the larger framework of:

Multiple levels of analysis.

41

Random assignment minimizes ______ between experimental and control groups. Random sampling minimizes ______ between a sample and a population..

?

42

The personality theorist Sigmund Freud was an Austrian:

Physician.

43

The three research methods used in psychology are:

Descriptive, Correlative, and Experimental.

44

Professor Ambra was skeptical about the accuracy of recently reported research in sleep deprivation. Which process would best enable her to asses the reliability of these findings?

Replication.

45

Mrs. Alferi believes her husband's angry outbursts against her result from his unconscious hatred of his own mother. Mrs. Alferi is looking at her husbands behavior from a ______ perspective.

?

46

Charles Darwin attempted to explain the ______ he encountered.

Species variation.

47

After an experiment, research participants are told its purpose and about any deception they may have experienced. This is called?

Debreifing.

48

Smiling is to ______ as feeling is to ______.

Behavior; mental process.

49

In an experimental study of the effects of anxiety on self esteem, anxiety would be the ______ variable?

Independent.

50

The hindsight bias refers to people's tendency to:

Exaggerate their ability to have foreseen an outcome.

51

Dr. Santaniello conducts research on how children's moral thinking changes as they grow older. It is most likely that Dr. Santaniello is an ______ psychologist.

Developmental.

52

The fact that the same individual won the New Jersey lottery on two separate occasions best illustrates:

A random outcome.

53

Looking inward and reporting your immediate sensations, images, and feelings is called?

Introspection.

54

The explanatory power of a scientific theory is most closely linked to its capacity to generate testable ______.

Predictions.

55

Which perspective highlights the reproductive advantages of inherited psychological traits?

Evolutionary.

56

An experiment was designed to study the potential impact of alcohol consumption on emotional stability. A specification of the procedures used to measure emotional stability illustrates ______.

An operational definition.

57

What is true of those assigned to a control group?

The experimental treatment is absent.

58

The distinctive feature of the psychodynamic perspective is its emphasis on ______.

Unconscious conflicts.

59

The nature-nuture issue refers to the relative contributions that ______ make to the development of psychological traits.

Genes and experience.

60

Dr. Caleigh conducts research on the relationship between adults' language skills and their capacity to solve mathematical problems. Dr. Caleigh is most likely a ______ psychologist.

Cognitive.

61

By testing their predictions with observational method of science, psychologists are using an:

Empirical approach.

62

Rodesia insists that Dr. Phillip's theory of aggression can be checked against observable evidence. She is demonstrating the scientific attitude of:

Skepticism.

63

The biosychosocial approach incorporates different levels of analysis, which:

Compliment one another.

64

Professor Crisman believes that most women prefer tall and physically strong partners because this preference promoted the survival of our ancestors' genes. This view point best illustrates the ______ perspective.

Evolutionary.

65

In a test of the effects of sleep deprivation on problem solving skills, research participants are allowed to sleep either 4 or 8 hours on each of three consecutive nights. Their research is an example of:

An experiment.

66

The survival of organisms best suited to a particular environment is known as?

Natural selection.

67

Cognitive neuroscience studies relationships between:

Thought processes and brain functions.

68

Functionalism was a school of psychology that focused attention on the:

Adaptive value of conscious thoughts and emotions.

69

Humanistic psychologists focused attention on the importance of peoples:

Potential for healthy growth.

70

When every individual in a large population has a small but equal chance of being included in a survey, researchers are using a procedure known as:

Random sampling.

71

In an experimental study, men with erectile dysfunction received either Viagra or a placebo. In this study, the drug dosage(none versus peak dose) was the ______ variable.

Independent.

72

Included in research methods are descriptive studies. Those are ______, ______, ______.

Case study, Survey, and Naturalistic observation.

73

Which method is helpful for clarifying cause-effect relationship?

The experiment.

74

The placebo effect best illustrates the impact of ______ on feelings and behaviors.

Positive Expectations.

75

Dr. Mills conducts research on why individuals conform to the behaviors and opinions of others. Which specialty area does his research best represent?

Social psychology.

76

To study the potential effects of social interaction on problem solving, some research participants were instructed to solve problems together; other participants were told to solve problems by working alone. Those who worked alone were assigned to the ______.

Control.

77

In which type of research would an investigator manipulate one factor and observe the effect on some behavior or mental process?

Experimentation.

78

The young science of psychology developed from the more established fields of philosophy and ______.

Biology.

79

Which psychological perspective is most likely to be concerned with identifying the powers and the limits of human reasoning?

Cognitive.

80

Which perspective studies the relative contributions of our genes and our environment on our individual differences?

Behavior genetics.

81

A theory is an organized set of principles that ______ observations and ______ events.

Organize; predicts.

82

Professor Smith told one class that drinking alcohol has been found to increase sexual desire. He informed another class that drinking alcohol has been found to reduce sexual appetite. The fact that neither class was surprised by the information they received best illustrates the power of:

Hindsight bias.

83

In a psychological experiment, the factor that may be influenced by the manipulated experimental treatment is called the ______ variable.

Dependent.

84

Behaviorism dismisses the value of:

Introspection.

85

Which of the following is most likely to inhibit critical thinking?

Overconfidence.

86

To accurately isolate cause and effect, experiments should use:

Random Assignment.

87

In a survey, psychologists select a random sample of research participants in order to ensure that:

The participants are representative of the population they are interested in studying.

88

Which perspective studies the relative contributions of our genes and our environment on our individual differences?

Behavior genetics.

89

The view that psychology should be an objective science that studies observable human activity without reference to mental processes is?

Behaviorism.

90

An under supply of serotonin is most closely linked to?

Depression.

91

Schizophrenia is most closely linked with excess receptor activity for the neurotransmitter ______.

Dopamine.

92

The somatic nervous system is a component of the ______ system.

Peripheral.

93

Auditory stimulation is first processed in the ______ lobes.

Temporal.

94

The association areas are located in the :

Cerebral Cortex.

95

Neural stimulation that exceeds a threshold triggers:

An action potential.

96

The body's natural production of endorphins is likely to be:

Decreased by heroin use and increased by vigorous exercise.

97

The motor cortex is located on the ______ lobes.

Frontal.

98

The part of the peripheral nervous system that controls the glands and the muscles of the internal organs is called the:

Autonomic nervous system.

99

You feel the pain of a sprained ankle when ______ relay messages from your ankle to your central nervous system.

Sensory Neurons.

100

Which division of the autonomic nervous system arouses the body and mobilizes its energy in stressful situations?

The sympathetic nervous system.

101

Message are transmitted from your spinal cord to your heart muscles by the:

Autonomic nervous system.

102

Mathematical and reasoning capacities are especially likely to be linked with association areas in the:

Parietal Lobes.

103

University men were shown an erotic movie clip. Compared with those who thought they had recently consumed a nonalcoholic beverage, men who believed they had recently consumed and alcoholic beverage were:

More likely to report having strong sexual fantasies and less likely to report having feelings of guilt.

104

Research participants are randomly assigned to different groups in an experiment in order to?

Minimize any differences between groups of participants.

105

Which perspective is most concerned with how individuals interpret their experiences?

Cognitive.

106

What perspective most clearly focuses on how we learn observable responses?

Behavioral.