Exploring Psychology-Chapter 14 Flashcards Preview

Psychology 101-Summer 2015 Paula Frioli-Peters > Exploring Psychology-Chapter 14 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Exploring Psychology-Chapter 14 Deck (96):
1

Evidence that many DID patients have suffered abuse as children leads some psychologists to include dissociative disorders under the umbrella of:

Post-traumatic stress disorder.

2

Two years after being brutally beaten and raped, Brianna still experiences jumpy anxiety and has trouble sleeping and vivid flashbacks of her assault. Brianna is most clearly showing signs of:

Post-traumatic stress disorder.

3

Researchers have suggested that the role playing of fantasy-prone patients in response to the leading questions of therapists has often contributed to:

Dissociative identity disorder.

4

Disruptions in conscious awareness and sense of identity are most characteristic of:

Dissociative disorders.

5

Of those who commit suicide about ________ have tried to kill themselves before and ________ discussed suicide beforehand.

One-third; most.

6

Many clinicians diagnose disorders by answering questions from five axes of the:

DSM-IV-TR.

7

A generalized anxiety disorder is characterized by:

A continuous state of tension, apprehension, and autonomic nervous system arousal.

8

Compared with the general population, those who have suffered ________ have at least 5 times greater risk of suicide.

Major depressive disorder.

9

Professor McIntosh emphasizes that depression often involves the interactive influences of self-focused rumination, rejection from others, and low serotonin levels. The professor's emphasis best illustrates:

A biopsychosocial approach.

10

One cluster of personality disorders marked by dramatic or impulsive behaviors is exemplified by the ________ personality disorder.

Histrionic.

11

Those with an avoidant personality disorder are most likely to display:

A fear of social rejection.

12

Which of the following disorders most often coexists with a learning disorder or with defiant and temper-prone behavior?

Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.

13

The onset of schizophrenia is typically associated with early:

Adulthood.

14

While he was studying, Matthew was suddenly overwhelmed by feelings of intense apprehension. For several minutes he felt so agitated that he could not catch his breath. Matthew was most likely suffering from:

A panic attack.

15

Inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity are major symptoms of:

ADHD.

16

Noah's therapist suggests that Noah developed a dissociative identity disorder in order to misbehave without feeling a strong sense of personal shame. The therapist's suggestion most directly reflects a ________ perspective.

Psychodynamic.

17

A World Health Organization study of 20 countries estimated that ________ had the highest prevalence of mental disorders during the prior year.

The United States.

18

An adopted child's chances of developing schizophrenia ________ if the biological parents have schizophrenia. The child's chances ________ if the adopted parents have schizophrenia.

Increase; do not increase.

19

The DSM-IV-TR does NOT:

Explain the causes of the various psychological disorders.

20

A disorder in which a person loses contact with reality and experiences irrational ideas and disordered perceptions is a:

Psychosis.

21

Elmer, the owner of an auto service station, suddenly began smashing the front fenders and hoods of two customers' cars. When asked why, he excitedly explained that he was transforming the cars into “real racing machines.” When an employee tried to restrain him, he shouted that everybody was fired and quickly began breaking the car windows. Elmer is exhibiting symptoms of:

Mania.

22

Which perspective has emphasized the impact of learned helplessness on depression?

Social-cognitive.

23

Which of the following disorders most often coexists with a learning disorder or with defiant and temper-prone behavior?

Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.

24

Cecil is preoccupied with thoughts of jumping out the window of his tenth-floor apartment. To reduce his anxiety, he frequently counts his heartbeats aloud. Cecil would most likely be diagnosed as experiencing:

Obsessive-compulsive disorder.

25

One difficulty with a purely attributional explanation of depression is that negative attributions:

May be a consequence rather than a cause of depression.

26

According to the medical model, psychological disorders are:

Sicknesses that need to be diagnosed and in most cases cured.

27

Jabar, a 25-year-old auto mechanic, thinks he is Napoleon. He further believes he is being imprisoned against his will in the psychiatric hospital where his relatives have brought him for treatment. Jabar is most likely suffering from:

Schizophrenia.

28

The genes that put people at risk for antisocial personality disorder also increase the risk for:

Alcohol dependence.

29

In which disorder do people alternate between states of lethargic hopelessness and wild optimism?

Bipolar disorder

30

People with anorexia nervosa often come from families that:

Are high achieving and competitive.

31

Between 1994 and 2003, there was a 40-fold increase in the number of under-20 people diagnosed each year with:

Bipolar disorder.

32

A hyper-reactive dopamine reward system has been observed among those with:

Antisocial personality disorder.
Post-traumatic stress disorder.

33

An immediate and irrational anxiety response to the mere sight of blood is indicative of:

A specific phobia.

34

In the last half of the twentieth century, American women expressed ________ satisfaction with their physical appearance and have experienced a(n) ________ incidence of serious eating disorders.

Decreasing; increasing.

35

The distinctive features used to identify the three clusters of personality disorders are:

Anxiety, eccentricity, and impulsivity.

36

A therapist suggests that Margaret is depressed because she attributes her failures to her own incompetence instead of blaming her parents and teachers for the unreasonable demands they place on her. The therapist's interpretation most clearly reflects a ________ perspective.

Social-cognitive.

37

Those with the narcissistic personality disorder are likely to be preoccupied with:

Their own self-importance.

38

Anorexia nervosa is typically characterized by:

An obsessive fear of becoming overweight.

39

Brain scans have found enlarged fluid-filled areas in the cerebral cortex of people with:

Schizophrenia.

40

A disorder in which an individual is happy, hyperactive, and wildly optimistic with dangerously poor judgment being common, is known as:

Mania.

41

The onset of ________ nearly always begins after a dieter has broken diet restrictions and gorged.

Bulimia nervosa.

42

There is some evidence that a relatively low level of autonomic nervous system arousal may contribute to:

Antisocial personality disorder.

43

Linkage analysis is of greatest interest to those who attempt to explain mood disorders from a ________ perspective.

Biological.

44

The experience of multiple personalities is most likely to be characterized by:

A massive dissociation of self from ordinary consciousness.

45

Compulsive hand washing often increases in frequency because it relieves feelings of anxiety. This best illustrates the impact of ________ on compulsive behaviors.

Reinforcement.

46

Significant dysfunction in a person's thoughts, feelings, or behaviors is most clearly an indication of:

Learned helplessness.

47

Disruptions in conscious awareness and sense of identity are most characteristic of:

Dissociative disorders.

48

Gaining relief from negative thoughts through the distraction of pain is one of the motives for:

Non-suicidal self-injury.

49

The major problem associated with explanations of psychological disorders in terms of demon possession is that these explanations:

Led to some harsh and ineffective remedial treatments.

50

Most combat-stressed soldiers do not later exhibit PTSD. This best illustrates survivor:

Resiliency.

51

Which of the following disorders is more common among men than women?

Antisocial personality disorder.

52

The risk of suicide is greatest when people:

Begin to rebound from their depression.

53

Sluggishness and inactivity are most likely to be associated with:

Major depressive disorder.

54

The experience of multiple personalities is most likely to be characterized by:

A massive dissociation of self from ordinary consciousness.

55

Freud suggested that for those suffering a generalized anxiety disorder, the anxiety is:

Free-floating.

56

Obsessions are:

Offensive and unwanted thoughts that persistently preoccupy a person.

57

Emily attributes her failure to qualify for her college soccer team to factors that are stable, global, and internal. She best illustrates:

Post-traumatic stress disorder.
A narcissistic personality disorder.
*A pessimistic explanatory style.

58

Larry has difficulty organizing his daily schedule of work responsibilities. He often makes careless mistakes or fails to complete his work because he is easily distracted. Larry's behavior is most characteristic of:

Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.

59

After George learned that Mrs. Min suffered from schizophrenia, he mistakenly concluded that her tendencies to laugh easily and smile frequently were symptoms of her disorder. This best illustrates the:

Biasing power of diagnostic labels.

60

It would be most difficult to use the ________ to explain why anorexia nervosa occurs mostly in Western cultures.

Medical model.

61

Mexican-Americans born in the United States are at greater risk of mental disorder than people who have recently immigrated from Mexico to the United States. This provides an example of the:

Immigrant paradox.

62

Connie exhibits multiple personalities. Evidence that information learned by her secondary personality influences the moods and behaviors of her primary personality would most clearly rule out the contribution of ________ to her symptoms.

Dissociation.

63

Wilma is extremely agitated because she hears voices that tell her to sexually seduce the male nurses in her hospital ward. Wilma is most clearly suffering from:

Hallucinations.

64

We can more easily extinguish a fear of driving a car than a fear of holding snakes. This is best explained in terms of:

Genetic predispositions.

65

College students were asked to pretend that they were accused murderers. Under hypnosis, they typically expressed a second personality when prompted to do so by the examining psychiatrist. This most strongly suggests that dissociative identity disorder may involve:

Role playing.

66

Inanna suffers from chronic depression. According to the social-cognitive perspective, how is she most likely to respond when told that she performed very poorly on a test she took the previous day?

“I'm academically incompetent and always will be.”

67

Cognitive changes that accompany depression include a(n):

Increased expectation of negative outcomes.

68

In 1973, the American Psychiatric Association discontinued classifying homosexuality as a disorder because mental health workers came to consider same-sex attraction as NOT inherently:

Dysfunctional.

69

Positive symptoms of schizophrenia are the ________ of inappropriate behaviors, and negative symptoms are the ________ of appropriate behaviors.

Absence; absence.
Presence; presence.
*Presence; absence.

70

The billionaire aviator Howard Hughes insisted that his assistants carry out elaborate hand-washing rituals and wear white gloves when handling any document he would later touch. His behavior best illustrated the symptoms of:

Obsessive-compulsive disorder.

71

Psychological disorders characterized by inflexible, enduring, and socially maladaptive behavior patterns are called ________ disorders.

Personality.

72

Schizophrenia is associated with an excess of receptors for:

Dopamine.

73

Delusions of persecution are most common among those with ________ schizophrenia.

Paranoid.

74

Some genes influence anxiety disorders by regulating levels of neurotransmitters such as ________, which influences sleep and mood.

Serotonin.

75

Twenty-two-year-old Tawana is slightly overweight and loves to eat, particularly snack foods and rich desserts. Fearful of becoming overweight, she frequently takes a laxative following episodes of binge eating. Tawana most clearly suffers from:

Bulimia nervosa.

76

The DSM-IV-TR is most clearly designed to ________ psychological disorders.

Classify.

77

A major depressive disorder is most likely to be characterized by:

Feelings of personal worthlessness.

78

Anthony is 32 years old, well above average in intelligence, and quite charming. He has swindled several older people out of their life savings, and he seems to have little feeling for his victims, nor does he fear the consequences of getting caught. His behavior is evidence of:

A personality disorder.

79

A biological perspective would be LEAST helpful for explaining the:

Fluctuations in mood experienced by those suffering a bipolar disorder.
Dramatic increase in reported cases of dissociative identity disorder during the 1980s.

80

Among women, the stresses and demoralization of poverty are especially likely to precipitate.

Depression.

81

Those most vulnerable to anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa are those who ________ value thinness and have the ________ body dissatisfaction.

Most; greatest.

82

Unlike those with bulimia nervosa, those with binge-eating disorders are not likely to ________ following binge eating.

Purge or fast.

83

Professor Pott emphasizes that normal depression serves an adaptive function by slowing people down and preventing them from engaging in life-threatening behaviors. The professor's emphasis best illustrates the ________ perspective.

Evolutionary.

84

Incapacitating efforts to avoid specific anxiety-producing situations is most indicative of certain:

Phobias.

85

The term psychopath refers to an individual with:

Antisocial personality disorder.

86

A deluded Scotsman, Daniel M'Naughten, tried to assassinate a government official in 1843. He was sent to a mental hospital rather than to a prison because he was judged to:

Be insane.

87

Carla is stressed by the death of a friend, she constantly ruminates about the fact that she is overweight, and she much more easily recalls her academic failures than her many academic successes. These factors are most likely to place Carla at a high level of risk for:

Major depressive disorder.

88

Alexis is socially withdrawn and has few close friends. This behavior is most likely to be diagnosed as a symptom of psychological disorder if it is:

Preventing her from functioning effectively.

89

About eight months ago, 14-year-old Shelley went on a drastic weight-loss diet that caused her to drop from 110 to 80 pounds. Although she is now dangerously underweight and under-nourished, she continues to think she looks fat. Her frustrated father recently forced her to eat a peanut butter sandwich, but Shelley immediately went to the bathroom and threw it all up. Shelley most clearly suffers from:

Anorexia nervosa.

90

Antisocial personality disorder is most likely to be characterized by:

A lack of guilt feelings.

91

It has been suggested that compulsive acts typically exaggerate behaviors that contributed to the survival of the human species. This idea best illustrates the ________ perspective.

Biological.

92

A fundamental problem with the diagnostic labeling of psychologically disordered behaviors is that the labels often:

Bias our perceptions of the labeled person.

93

Although Adderall is a ________ drug, it is commonly used in the treatment of ________.

Stimulant; ADHD.

94

Julius is obsessed with avoiding germs and feels compelled to bathe at least 10 times a day. His therapist suggests that Julius continues his maladaptive bathing because this behavior temporarily reduced his anxiety on many past occasions. The therapist's suggestion highlights the influence of:

Reinforcement.

95

Inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity are major symptoms of:

ADHD.

96

Schizophrenia is most likely to be characterized by:

Disorganized and fragmented thinking.