Exploring Psychology-Chapter 6 Flashcards Preview

Psychology 101-Summer 2015 Paula Frioli-Peters > Exploring Psychology-Chapter 6 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Exploring Psychology-Chapter 6 Deck (98):
1

Rods are:

More light-sensitive and less color-sensitive than are cones.

2

According to place theory, the perception of:

High-pitched sounds is associated with large vibrations of the basilar membrane closest to the oval window.

3

Which of the following represents the very first of three steps basic to all sensory systems?

Receiving sensory stimulation.

4

Eardrum vibrations are transmitted by three tiny bones located in the:

Middle ear.

5

An 80-decibel sound is ________ times more intense than a 60-decibel sound.

100.

6

Which of the following is a cue used by artists to convey depth on a flat canvas?

Interposition.

7

The visual cliff is a laboratory device for testing ________ in infants.

Depth perception.

8

Which of the following best explains how we detect different high-pitched sounds?

Place theory.

9

Brightness is to intensity as hue is to:

Wavelength.

10

The minimum amount of stimulation a person needs to detect a stimulus 50 percent of the time is called the:

Absolute threshold.

11

Relative height is a cue involving our perception of objects higher in our field of vision as:

Farther away.

12

When the Moon is near the horizon, it appears larger than when it is high in the sky. This effect is primarily a result of:

Distance cues, which make the horizon Moon seem farther away.

13

If an adult who was blind from birth gains the ability to see, that person would have the greatest difficulty visually distinguishing:

Circles from squares.

14

The horizon Moon appears to shrink in size if it is viewed through a narrow tube that eliminates the perception of distance cues. This best illustrates the importance of:

Context effects.

15

The olfactory receptors are activated by:

The basilar membrane.

16

Which process allows more light to reach the periphery of the retina?

Dilation of the pupil.

17

The organizational rules identified by Gestalt psychologists illustrate that:

The perceived whole differs from the sum of its parts.

18

The perception of an object as distinct from its surroundings is called:

Figure-ground perception.

19

Joe Wilson, age 55, has been told by experts that he has conduction hearing loss and that a hearing aid would restore his lost sense of hearing. It is likely that Joe's hearing loss involves problems within the:

Middle ear.

20

Hard-of-hearing people are especially likely to remain sensitive to ________ sounds.

Loud.

21

As the farmer looked across her field, the parallel rows of young corn plants appeared to converge in the distance. This provided her with a distance cue known as:

Linear perspective.

22

Which cells for visual processing are located closest to the back of the retina?

Rods and Cones.

23

The sense of smell is known as:

Olfaction.

24

A cochlear implant converts sounds into:

Electrical signals.

25

The sense of touch includes the four basic sensations of:

Pressure, pain, warmth, and cold.

26

A perceptual set is a:

Mental predisposition that influences what we perceive.

27

The ability to see objects in three dimensions is most essential for making judgments of:

Distance.

28

The olfactory receptors are activated by:

Airborne molecules.

29

Bottom-up processing involves analysis that begins with the:

Sensory receptors.

30

Our sense of hearing is known as:

Audition.

31

The perceived size of an object is most strongly influenced by that object's perceived:

Distance.

32

When most people stare first at a blue circle and then shift their eyes to a white surface, the afterimage of the circle appears:

Yellow.

33

A clouding of the lens of the eye is called a:

Cataract.

34

Stereotypes are mental conceptions that can strongly influence the way we interpret the behaviors of individuals belonging to specific racial or ethnic groups. A stereotype is most similar to a:

Perceptual set.

35

The pupil is the:

Adjustable opening in the center of the eye through which light enters.

36

Relative height is a cue involving our perception of objects higher in our field of vision as:

Farther away.

37

A gestalt is best described as a(n):

Organized whole.

38

The process of receiving and representing stimulus energies by the nervous system is called:

Sensation.

39

Cocking your head would be most useful for detecting the ________ of a sound.

Location.

40

A perceptual set is a:

Mental predisposition that influences what we perceive.

41

The conversion of a fresh coffee aroma into neural impulses by olfactory receptor cells best illustrates:

Transduction.

42

Color constancy refers to the fact that:

Objects are perceived to be the same color even if the light they reflect changes.

43

Individual nerve cells increase the frequency of neural impulses in the auditory nerve by firing in rapid succession. This is said to illustrate:

The volley principle.

44

Sense receptor cells that project antenna-like hairs are located within:

Taste buds.

45

Sensation is to ________ as perception is to ________.

Detection; interpretation.

46

When the Moon is near the horizon, it appears larger than when it is high in the sky. This effect is primarily a result of:

Distance cues, which make the horizon Moon seem farther away.

47

The organizational rules identified by Gestalt psychologists illustrate that:

The perceived whole differs from the sum of its parts.

48

Information processing guided by higher-level mental processes is called:

Top-down processing.

49

Infant rats deprived of their mothers' grooming touch produce:

Less growth hormone and have a lower metabolic rate.

50

Which cells for visual processing are located closest to the back of the retina?

Rods and cones.

51

The tendency to hear the steady drip of a leaky sink faucet as if it were a repeating rhythm of two or more beats best illustrates:

Perceptual organization.

52

The cochlea consists of:

A fluid-filled tube in the inner ear.

53

The sense of smell is known as:

Olfaction.

54

Sensory adaptation refers to:

Diminished sensitivity to an unchanging stimulus.

55

The barn owl's right ear opens slightly upward while its left ear opens slightly downward. This difference enables the owl to detect the ________ of a sound.

Location.

56

Which of the following play the biggest role in our feeling dizzy and unbalanced after a thrilling roller coaster ride?

Semicircular canals.

57

Although a few keys on the piano were broken, Shana mentally filled in the missing notes of the familiar melodies. This best illustrates the principle of:

Closure.

58

Touching side-by-side cold and pressure spots triggers a sense of:

Wetness.

59

The taste of umami is a ________ taste.

Meaty.

60

The process of receiving and representing stimulus energies by the nervous system is called:

Sensation.

61

The absolute threshold for hearing is arbitrarily defined as zero:

Decibels.

62

The axons of ganglion cells converge to form:

The optic nerve.

63

When given a placebo that is said to relieve pain, we are likely to be soothed by the brain's release of:

Endorphins.

64

On the way to the visual cortex, neural impulses from the retina are first relayed to the:

Thalamus.

65

The perceived size of an object is most strongly influenced by that object's perceived:

Distance.

66

The ability to simultaneously process the pitch, loudness, melody, and meaning of a song best illustrates:

Parallel processing.

67

Perception is the process by which:

Sensory input is organized and interpreted.

68

Which receptor cells most directly enable us to distinguish different wavelengths of light?

Cones.

69

The brain's release of endorphins reduces:

Pain.

70

Our assumption that light typically comes from above us contributes most directly to the importance of ________ as a monocular cue for depth perception.

Light and shadow.

71

Bottom-up processing involves analysis that begins with the:

Sensory receptors.

72

An integrated understanding of pain control in terms of mental distraction, the release of endorphins, and the presence of empathic caregivers is most clearly provided by:

A biopsychosocial approach.

73

Hearing a sequence of sounds of different pitches is to ________ as recognizing the sound sequence as a familiar melody is to ________.

Sensation; perception

74

Indicators of distance such as linear perspective which are available to either eye alone are called:

Monocular cues.

75

The ability to see objects in three dimensions is most essential for making judgments of:

Distance.

76

Which of the following senses is best described as a chemical sense?

Smell.

77

Receptor cells for our sense of ________ reproduce themselves every week or two.

Taste.

78

Sensory receptors in your vestibular sacs enable you to maintain your sense of:

Balance.

79

Cones and rods are to vision as ________ are to audition.

Hair cells.

80

Color constancy refers to the fact that:

Objects are perceived to be the same color even if the light they reflect changes.

81

A subliminal message is one that:
Is below your absolute threshold.
Cannot be detected 50 percent of the time.
Can affect you under certain conditions.

Is all of these things.

82

The process of transducing air pressure waves into neural messages that the brain interprets as meaningful sound is known as:

Audition.

83

Three steps that are basic to all sensory systems include the ________ of information to the brain.

Receiving, transforming, and delivering.

84

Damage to the fovea would probably have the LEAST effect on visual sensitivity to ________ stimuli.

Dimly illuminated.

85

After holding a warm drink rather than a cold one, people are more likely to rate others more warmly. This best illustrates:

Embodied cognition.

86

During the months when there is a large amount of pollen in the air, your hay fever severely affects your sense of smell. At the same time your food all seems to taste the same. This illustrates that your normal ability to savor tastes depends on:

Sensory interaction.

87

The influence of our physical gestures on our psychological preferences is said to be an indication of:

Embodied cognition.
Relative luminance.
Phantom limb sensations.

88

The influence of schemas on our interpretations of ambiguous sensations best illustrates:

Top-down processing.

89

The human ability to speedily recognize familiar objects best illustrates the value of:

Parallel processing.

90

Figure is to ground as ________ is to ________.

A white cloud; blue sky.

91

Visual information is processed by:

Ganglion cells before it is processed by feature detectors.
Bipolar cells before it is processed by rods and cones.
Feature detectors before it is processed by bipolar cells.

92

The extrasensory ability to perceive an automobile accident taking place in a distant location is to ________ as the extrasensory ability to know at any moment exactly what your best friend is thinking is to ________.

Clairvoyance; telepathy.

93

Giulio's bag of marbles is twice as heavy as Jim's. If it takes 5 extra marbles to make Jim's bag feel heavier, it will take 10 extra marbles to make Giulio's bag feel heavier. This best illustrates:

Weber's law.

94

Certain stroke victims report seeing nothing when shown a series of sticks, yet they are able to correctly report whether the sticks are vertical or horizontal. This best illustrates:

Blindsight.

95

According to the Young-Helmholtz theory, when both red-sensitive and green-sensitive cones are stimulated simultaneously, a person should see:

Yellow.

96

Sensory receptors that detect hurtful temperatures, pressure, or chemicals are called:

Nociceptors.

97

The olfactory receptors are activated by:

Airborne molecules.

98

Hearing a sequence of sounds of different pitches is to ________ as recognizing the sound sequence as a familiar melody is to ________.

Sensation; perception.