Exploring Psychology-Chapter 11 Flashcards Preview

Psychology 101-Summer 2015 Paula Frioli-Peters > Exploring Psychology-Chapter 11 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Exploring Psychology-Chapter 11 Deck (91):
1

Addressing stressors with problem-focused coping would be most characteristic of those with:

Personal control.

2

Vanessa alleviated some of the stress associated with the death of her husband by becoming more actively engaged in her work. Her response best illustrates:

Emotion-focused coping.

3

Those who attribute their poor performance to a lack of ability or to situations enduringly beyond their control demonstrate:

Pessimism.

4

Stress is most likely to speed the progression from HIV to AIDS by:

Inhibiting the release of lymphocytes.

5

People are likely to experience higher levels of ________ if they seek to contribute to their communities rather than simply strive for personal wealth and power.

Subjective well-being

6

The risk of coronary heart disease is increased by:

High blood pressure.

7

Mindfulness meditation has been shown to reduce:

Anxiety.

8

Which of the following is most likely to foster stronger immune functioning?

Social support.

9

Evidence suggests that ________ may foster neurogenesis.

Aerobic exercise.

10

Rush hour traffic is to upset stomach as ________ is to ________.

Stressor; stress reaction.

11

The general adaptation syndrome describes stages in the:

Body's response to prolonged stress.

12

The feel-good, do-good phenomenon refers to the fact that when people feel happy they:

Are more willing to help others.

13

Winston has a very negative academic self-concept because most of his classmates are more academically advanced than he is. Winston's experience best illustrates:

Relative deprivation.

14

Following a catastrophic earthquake, residents of one community came together and provided each other with emotional support. This reaction best illustrates:

The tend-and-befriend response.

15

Lymphocytes are:

White blood cells that are part of the body's immune system.

16

Heart disease and depression may both result when chronic stress triggers:

Persistent inflammation.

17

Elderly nursing home residents tend to decline faster and die sooner than they would otherwise if they lack:

Perceived control.

18

Dogs strapped into a harness and given repeated and unavoidable shocks developed:

Learned helplessness.

19

Aerobic exercise has been most closely linked to a decrease in:

Depression.

20

Jed wants his roommate Dante to help him study for a physics test. Dante is most likely to want to help after he has:

Received an A on his psychology test.

21

Those with an internal locus of control act ________ independently and feel ________ depressed than those with an external locus of control.

More; less:

22

A friend suggests that Theresa could effectively reduce her anger toward her ex-boyfriend by tearing pictures of him into little pieces. The friend most clearly assumes that this action would lead to:

An emotional catharsis.

23

British civil service workers in executive positions live longer than those in clerical positions. This best illustrates the value of:

Perceived control.

24

In the long run, people who practice self-regulation through physical exercise and time-managed study programs experience an increase in:

Self-control.

25

A Harvard School of Public Health research team studied 1306 initially healthy men over a 10-year period. They found that ________ were more than twice as likely as ________ to develop heart disease.

Pessimists; optimists.

26

The correlation between religious involvement and life expectancy best illustrates the health value of:

The faith factor.

27

To alleviate the stress of losing her job, Alicia enrolled in a work retraining program that led to full-time employment. Alicia's behavior best illustrates:

Problem-focused coping.

28

The third phase of the general adaptation syndrome is characterized by:

Exhaustion.

29

Encouraging people to vent their anger in order to reduce it presumes that angry expressions promote:

Catharsis.

30

Addressing stressors with problem-focused coping would be most characteristic of those with:

Personal control.

31

Dental students healed more slowly from punch wounds received three days prior to a major exam than from punch wounds received during their summer vacation. The slower healing prior to a major exam is best explained by the students' temporarily reduced release of:

Lymphocytes.

32

Haley's parents bought her a used bicycle for her birthday. She was thrilled until she learned that her best friend received a brand new bicycle for her birthday. Haley's declining satisfaction illustrates:

Relative deprivation.

33

The three successive phases of the general adaptation syndrome are:

Alarm reaction, resistance, and exhaustion.

34

Sasha believes that the questions on school tests are so unrelated to course work that studying is useless. Sasha's belief most clearly illustrates:

An external locus of control.

35

Resisting the temptation to eat chocolate chip cookies led research participants to subsequently give up sooner than normal on efforts to complete a tedious task. This illustrated that self-control momentarily weakens following:

The exercise of willpower.

36

People who become blind usually ________ recover near-normal levels of day-to-day happiness. People who become paralyzed usually ________ recover near-normal levels of day-to-day happiness.

Do; do.

37

Compared with those who are unhappy, happy people are ________ decisive and ________ cooperative.

More; more.

38

Bryson was encouraged by a supportive network of friends following a serious business setback. Research suggests that this social support was likely to improve Bryson's health by reducing his:

Blood pressure.

39

Chronic anger ________ the risk of heart disease, and chronic depression ________ the risk of heart disease.:

Increases; increases.

40

The greatest number of deaths in Africa today result from:

AIDS.

41

The study of how psychological, neural, and endocrine processes combine to affect our immune system and health is called:

Psychoneuroimmunology.

42

Depression increases the risk of death, especially death from:

Coronary heart disease.

43

After resisting a strong temptation to overeat during a lengthy but sumptuous all-you-can-eat buffet dinner, Jason was unable to resist the temptation to drink too much alcohol during an important after-dinner business meeting. Jason's excess consumption of alcohol best illustrated the impact of:

Relative deprivation.

44

The macrophage and lymphocytes are major agents of the:

Immune system.

45

Friedman and Rosenman referred to competitive, hard-driving, impatient, and easily angered individuals as ________ personalities.

Type A.

46

A perceived loss of control is associated with ________ epinephrine levels and ________ lymphocyte activity.

Increased; decreased.

47

Those who perceive an internal locus of control believe that:

Individuals can influence their own outcomes in life.

48

The ability to delay short-term gratification for greater long-term rewards illustrates:

Self-control.

49

Alex experiences little stress because he expects things to work out the way he wants them to. This best illustrates the value of:

Optimism.

50

Catharsis refers to the process of:

Venting pent-up emotions.

51

As you are waiting to be interviewed for a job, your heart rate, body temperature, and breathing rate begin to increase. These physiological changes are produced by activation of the ________ nervous system.

Sympathetic.

52

The passive resignation of learned helplessness is most likely to be associated with:

An external locus of control.

53

During the first few weeks of law school, students were observed to have stronger immune systems if they:

Were optimistic.

54

Coping refers to a variety of methods used to:

Alleviate stress.

55

After receiving very bad news, people ________ the duration of their negative emotions.

Overestimate.

56

One of the major pillars of the positive psychology movement involves the study of:

Character strengths.

57

Resistance to stress is greatest during ________ of the GAS.

Phase 2.

58

Rosaria is upset with her husband for not putting his dirty clothes in the laundry basket. Anger experts would most likely recommend that she deal with her frustration by saying to him:

β€œIt bothers me that you leave your dirty clothes for me to pick up.”

59

After stockbrokers who lived alone had adopted a pet cat or dog, they were able to face stress with less ________ than their counterparts without pets.

Blood pressure increase.

60

After experiencing inescapable brutalities as a prisoner in a Nazi concentration camp, Mr. Sternberg became apathetic, stopped eating, and gave up all efforts to physically survive the ordeal. Mr. Sternberg's reaction most clearly illustrates:

Learned helplessness.

61

The frequency of positive and negative emotion words used by U.S. Facebook users indicates that their most positive moods were expressed on:

Fridays.

62

The third phase of the general adaptation syndrome is characterized by:

Exhaustion.

63

Immune system cells that pursue and destroy diseased body cells are called:

NK cells.

64

Compared with the unmarried, people in low-conflict marriages are more likely to:

Live longer.

65

The study of positive emotions, desirable character traits, and enabling institutions is central to the emerging subfield known as:

Positive psychology.

66

Which of the following best explains why, for those who are not poor, more money buys little more than a temporary surge of happiness?

The adaptation-level phenomenon.

67

Relative deprivation refers to the tendency for our personal happiness to be heavily influenced by:

Others' success.

68

Who is the best example of a Type A personality?

Philip, a competitive, hot-tempered corporation president.

69

In their classic nine-year study, Friedman and Rosenman reported that, compared with Type A men, Type B men were:

Less susceptible to heart attacks.

70

The passive resignation of learned helplessness is most likely to be associated with:

An external locus of control.

71

In a stressful situation, feelings of pain are dulled by:

The sympathetic nervous system.

72

A loss of perceived control tends to result in:

Reduced immune responses.

73

An understanding of how stress affects our resistance to disease is the central focus of:

Psychoneuroimmunology.

74

Research on stressful life events indicates that:

Those who have been recently widowed, fired, or divorced are more vulnerable to disease.

75

Psychologists define stress as:

The process by which we appraise and respond to threatening or challenging events.

76

Aerobic exercise is associated with:

Increased levels of serotonin and increased levels of the endorphins.

77

Which of the following psychologists has played a leadership role in the recent development of positive psychology?

Martin Seligman.

78

Rannilt was euphoric after learning that she had been accepted by the medical school of her choice. After a few weeks, however, she is only mildly excited when she thinks about her admission to medical school. This change in her feelings can best be explained in terms of:

The adaptation-level phenomenon.

79

Daily pressures compounded by racism and prejudice take a toll on many African-Americans in the form of:

High blood pressure.

80

Who is the best example of a Type B personality?

Wang Lung, a relaxed, easygoing dentist.

81

For Type A individuals, exposure to stress is especially likely to inhibit organs such as the ________ from removing cholesterol and fat from the blood.

Liver.

82

Rodents who experienced inescapable shocks were more prone to developing cancer if they had previously been exposed to:

Carcinogens.

83

While taking a difficult test, Cindy's muscles tense and her heart pounds. These physiological responses best illustrate:

Stress reactions.

84

The relaxation response associated with meditation is most likely to:

Decrease oxygen consumption and decrease blood pressure.

85

Mildly depressed female college students assigned to a program of ________ reported a greater decrease in depression than those assigned to a program of ________.

Aerobic exercise; relaxation exercises.

86

Emma believes that she will succeed in business if she works hard and carefully manages her time. Her belief most clearly illustrates:

An internal locus of control.

87

AIDS is caused by a ________ infection spread primarily through ________.

Viral; the exchange of bodily fluids.

88

Two-thirds of Americans responding to surveys taken in the three weeks after the 9/11 terrorist attacks reported:

Sleeping difficulties.

89

Mentally rehearsing resentments contributes to ________ perspiration levels and ________ blood pressure levels than mentally rehearsing forgiveness.

Higher; higher.

90

One way for people to improve their own subjective well-being is to:

Participate in regular aerobic exercise.

91

Walter Cannon observed that a variety of stressors trigger:

A fight-or-flight reaction.