Exploring Psychology-Chapter 7 Flashcards Preview

Psychology 101-Summer 2015 Paula Frioli-Peters > Exploring Psychology-Chapter 7 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Exploring Psychology-Chapter 7 Deck (105):
1

Researchers condition a flatworm to contract its body to a light by repeatedly pairing the light with electric shock. The stage in which the flatworm's contraction response to light is established and gradually strengthened is called:

Acquisition.

2

Garcia and Koelling's studies of taste aversion in rats demonstrated that classical conditioning is constrained by:

Biological predispositions.

3

The ability to distinguish between a conditioned stimulus and stimuli that do not signal an unconditioned stimulus is called:

Discrimination.

4

Recognizing that one of your friends is feeling angry and that another friend is feeling sad illustrates an ability known as:

Theory of mind.

5

Which of the following is the best example of a conditioned reinforcer?

Applause for an excellent piano recital.

6

An event that strengthens the behavior it follows is a(n):

Reinforcement.

7

Positive reinforcers ________ the rate of operant responding, and negative reinforcers ________ the rate of operant responding.

Increase; increase.

8

Studies of latent learning highlight the importance of:

Cognitive processes.

9

A geometric figure is most likely to trigger sexual arousal if presented shortly:

Before an appropriate US.

10

EDITED - In Pavlov's experiments, the sound of the tone triggered the dog's salivation. Salivation to the sound of a tone was a(n):

Conditioned response.

11

If rats are allowed to wander through a complicated maze, they will subsequently run the maze with few errors when a food reward is placed at the end. Their good performance demonstrates:

Latent learning.

12

An executive in a computer software firm works with his office door closed. At the same time every hour he opens the door to see what his employees are doing. The employees have learned to work especially hard during the five minutes before and while the door is open. Their work pattern is typical of responses that are reinforced on a ________ schedule.

Fixed-interval.

13

On the first day of class, Professor Wallace tells her geography students that pop quizzes will be given at unpredictable times throughout the semester. Clearly, studying for Professor Wallace's surprise quizzes will be reinforced on a ________ schedule.

Variable-interval.

14

In Pavlov's experiments, the taste of food triggered the dog's salivation. Salivation to the taste of food was a(n):

Unconditioned response.

15

PAULA - As a child, you were playing in the yard one day when a neighbor's cat wandered over. Your mother (who has a terrible fear of animals) screamed and snatched you into her arms. Her behavior caused you to cry. You now have a fear of cats. Identify the UR.

Your fear today.

16

Five-year-old Trevor is emotionally disturbed and refuses to communicate with anyone. To get him to speak, his teacher initially gives him candy for any utterance, then only for a clearly spoken word, and finally only for a complete sentence. The teacher is using the method of:

Shaping.

17

After one chimpanzee sees a second chimp open a box that contains a food reward, the first animal opens a similar box with great speed. This best illustrates:

Observational learning.

18

Extinction occurs when a ________ is no longer paired with a ________.

CS; US.

19

Our ability to learn by witnessing the behavior of others best illustrates:

Observational learning.

20

Because of the discomfort and embarrassment associated with his childhood bed-wetting, Andrew becomes nervous whenever he senses an urge to urinate. If genital arousal subsequently makes Andrew unusually anxious, this would best illustrate:

Generalization.

21

The acquisition of mental information by observing events, by watching others, or through language is called:

Cognitive learning.

22

If a sea slug on repeated occasions receives an electric shock just after being squirted with water, its protective withdrawal response to a squirt of water grows stronger. This best illustrates:

Associative learning.

23

Makayla developed an intense fear of flying five years ago when she was in a plane crash. The fact that today she can again fly without distress indicates that her fear has undergone:

Extinction.

24

In Pavlov's experiments on the salivary conditioning of dogs, the US was:

The presentation of food in the dog's mouth.

25

For purposes of effective child rearing, most psychologists favor the use of:

Reinforcement over punishment.

26

Blake is a carpet installer who wants to be paid for each square foot of carpet he lays rather than with an hourly wage. Blake prefers working on a ________ schedule of reinforcement.

Fixed-ratio.

27

A young child who is spanked after running into the street learns not to repeat this behavior. In this case, the spanking is a:

Positive reinforcer.
*Positive punishment.
Negative punishment.

28

Janet has almost finished painting a neighbor's house, at which time she'll be paid $2000. The fact that she is increasingly unlikely to quit painting as she nears completion of the job best illustrates that operant behavior is strongly influenced by ________ reinforcers.

Immediate.

29

Two years ago, the de Castellane Manufacturing Company included its employees in a profit-sharing plan in which workers receive semiannual bonuses based on the company's profits. Since this plan was initiated, worker productivity at de Castellane has nearly doubled. This productivity increase is best explained in terms of:

Operant conditioning.

30

Your heart may race when you are confronted by a lion but not when you are approached by a kitten. This best illustrates the adaptive value of:

Discrimination.

31

If bears find insects after they move decaying logs, they more frequently move decaying logs. This most clearly indicates that finding insects is a:

Reinforcement.

32

Male Japanese quail became sexually aroused by a red light that was repeatedly associated with the presentation of a female quail. The sexual arousal triggered by the red light was a:

CR.

33

After a fear-provoking biking accident, Alex extinguished his conditioned fear of bikes by cycling on a safe biking trail every day for a week. The reappearance of his previously extinguished fear when Alex rode a bike on the same trail two weeks later best illustrates:

Spontaneous recovery.

34

Rats easily learn to associate nausea-producing radiation treatments with:

Novel tastes.

35

After a fear-provoking biking accident, Alex extinguished his conditioned fear of bikes by cycling on a safe biking trail every day for a week. The reappearance of his previously extinguished fear when Alex rode a bike on the same trail two weeks later best illustrates:

Spontaneous recovery.

36

Rats easily learn to associate nausea-producing radiation treatments with:

Novel tastes.

37

In which form of learning is behavior influenced by its consequences?

Operant conditioning.

38

In which form of learning is behavior influenced by its consequences?

Operant conditioning.

39

The taste of food and relief from a headache are both ________ reinforcers.

Primary.

40

Desensitization and imitation are two factors that contribute to:

Spontaneous recovery.
*The violence-viewing effect.
Instinctive drift.

41

Which of the following is an unconditioned response?

Sweating in hot weather.

42

The desire to perform a behavior due to promised rewards or threats of punishment involves:

Extrinsic motivation.

43

Mason, a stockbroker, runs two miles every day after work because it reduces his level of stress. Mason's running habit is maintained by a ________ reinforcer.

Negative.

44

You would be most likely to use operant conditioning to teach a dog to:

Retrieve sticks and balls.

45

Prior to learning painfully that the sound of a buzzing bee signaled an impending bee sting, Sara experienced no fear in response to the buzzing sound. At that time the sound of the buzzing bee was most clearly a(n):

Neutral stimulus.

46

Four-year-old Della asks her mother for a special treat every time they go to the grocery store. At first her mother granted every request, but now she does so less consistently. Research suggests that Della will:

Continue to ask for a treat nearly every time she goes to the store.

47

Shaping is a(n) ________ procedure.

Operant conditioning.

48

A partial reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response that occurs after an unpredictable period of time is a ________ schedule.

Variable-interval.

49

Primary reinforcers could best be described as:

Innately satisfying stimuli.

50

Alex was paid $100 for eight hours of work. The money was a(n):

Conditioned reinforcer.

51

In Pavlov's experiments on the salivary conditioning of dogs, the US was:

The presentation of food in the dog's mouth.

52

Because Yuri was curious about human behavior, he enrolled in an introductory psychology course. George registered because he heard it was an easy course that would boost his grade-point average. In this instance, Yuri's behavior was a reflection of ________, whereas George's behavior was a reflection of ________.

Intrinsic motivation; extrinsic motivation.

53

A learned association between behaviors and resulting events is central to:

Operant conditioning.

54

Just after they taste a sweet liquid, mice are injected with a drug that produces an immune response. Later, the taste of the sweet liquid by itself triggers an immune response. This best illustrates:

Classical conditioning.

55

Sandy finds it harder to frown when watching her brother smile than when seeing him frown. Scientists are currently debating whether this can be attributed to the activation of:

Mirror neurons.

56

A fixed-ratio schedule of reinforcement is one in which a response is reinforced only after a(n):

Specified number of responses have been made.

57

Taking away the driver's license of a reckless teen driver is intended to serve as a:

Negative punishment.

58

Children often learn to associate pushing a vending machine button with the delivery of a candy bar. This best illustrates the process underlying:

Operant conditioning.

59

Paul and Michael sell magazine subscriptions by telephone. Paul is paid $1.00 for every five calls he makes, while Michael is paid $1.00 for every subscription he sells, regardless of the number of calls he makes. Paul's telephoning is reinforced on a ________ schedule, whereas Michael's is reinforced on a ________ schedule.

Fixed-interval; variable-ratio.


60

Positive punishment is the introduction of a(n) ________ stimulus following a behavior and negative punishment is the withdrawal of a(n) ________ stimulus following a behavior.

Aversive; pleasant.

61

After pigs learned to pick up and deposit wooden coins in a piggy bank, the pigs subsequently dropped the coins repeatedly and pushed them with their snouts. This best illustrates the importance of ________ in operant conditioning.

Biological predispositions.

62

Our ability to learn by witnessing the behavior of others best illustrates:

Observational learning.

63

A child's learned fear at the sight of a hypodermic needle is a(n):

Conditioned response.

64

Cats received a fish reward whenever they maneuvered themselves out of an enclosed puzzle box. With successive trials, the cats escaped from the box with increasing speed. This illustrates:

The law of effect.

65

The introduction of a pleasant stimulus is to ________ as the withdrawal of a pleasant stimulus is to ________.

Reinforcement; punishment.

66

If rats are allowed to wander through a complicated maze, they will subsequently run the maze with few errors when a food reward is placed at the end. Their good performance demonstrates:

Latent learning.

67

Voluntary behaviors that produce rewarding or punishing consequences are called:

Respondent behaviors.
Prosocial behaviors.
*Operant behaviors.

68

In classical conditioning, a stimulus that elicits no response before conditioning is called a(n):

Neutral stimulus.

69

A Skinner box is a(n):

Chamber containing a bar or key that an animal can manipulate to obtain a reward.

70

Alex learned to babysit and care for young children effectively by observing the many ways his mother carefully nurtured his own younger siblings. This best illustrates the value of observational learning for promoting:

Prosocial behavior.

71

A pigeon is consistently reinforced with food for pecking a key after seeing an image of a human face, but not reinforced for pecking after seeing other images. By signaling that a pecking response will be reinforced, the image of a human face is a(n):

Discriminative stimulus.

72

Pets who learn that the sound of an electric can opener signals the arrival of their food illustrate:

Classical conditioning.

73

A partial reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response after an unpredictable number of responses is a ________ schedule.

Variable-ratio.

74

A fixed-interval schedule of reinforcement is one in which a response is reinforced only after a(n):

Specified time period has elapsed.

75

An event or situation signaling that an operant response will be reinforced is called a(n):

Cognitive map.
*Primary reinforcer.
Discriminative stimulus.

76

A partial reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response that occurs after an unpredictable period of time is a ________ schedule.

Variable-interval.

77

A response is learned most rapidly and is most resistant to extinction if it is acquired under conditions of:

Continuous reinforcement followed by partial reinforcement.

78

It's easier to train a pigeon to peck a disk for a food reward than to flap its wings for a food reward. This illustrates the importance of ________ in learning.

Biological predispositions.

79

In Aldous Huxley's Brave New World, infants develop a fear of books after books are repeatedly presented with a loud noise. In this fictional example, the loud noise is a(n):

Unconditioned stimulus.
Unconditioned response.

80

Any stimulus that, when removed after a response, strengthens the response is called a(n):

Negative reinforcer.

81

An integrated understanding of associative learning in terms of genetic predispositions, culturally learned preferences, and the predictability of certain associations is most clearly provided by:

A biopsychosocial approach.

82

Our ability to learn by witnessing the behavior of others best illustrates:

Observational learning.

83

In a well-known experiment, preschool children pounded and kicked a large inflated Bobo doll that an adult had just beaten on. This experiment served to illustrate the importance of:

Observational learning.

84

The use of physical punishment may:

Have all of these results.

85

We are most likely to imitate the behavior of models if we observe that their actions are:

Conditioned responses.
*Followed by reinforcement.
Violent or antisocial.

86

PAULA - As a child, you were playing in the yard one day when a neighbor's cat wandered over. Your mother (who has a terrible fear of animals) screamed and snatched you into her arms. Her behavior caused you to cry. You now have a fear of cats. Identify the US.

Your mother's behavior.

87

The study of respondent behavior is to ________ as the study of operant behavior is to ________.

Pavlov; Skinner.

88

An animal trainer is teaching a miniature poodle to balance on a ball. Initially, he gives the poodle a treat for approaching the ball, then only for placing its front paws on the ball, and finally only for climbing on the ball. The trainer is using the method of:

Successive approximations.

89

Psychologists define learning as the process of:

Acquiring new and relatively enduring information or behaviors.

90

Mirror neurons are believed by some scientists to provide a biological basis for:

Observational learning.

91

Resistance to extinction is most strongly encouraged by ________ reinforcement.

Delayed.
Intermittent.
Negative.

92

Laurie's thumbsucking has become habitual because she feels less anxious when she sucks her thumb. This best illustrates the process of:

Generalization.
Latent learning.
*Operant conditioning.

93

Jeremy wears his baseball cap backward because he noticed that his older brother does so. This illustrates the importance of:

Modeling.

94

An event that strengthens the behavior it follows is a(n):

Reinforcement.

95

The predictability rather than the frequency of CS-US associations appears to be crucial for classical conditioning. This highlights the importance of ________ in conditioning.

Cognitive processes.

96

An event or situation signaling that an operant response will be reinforced is called a(n):

*Cognitive map.
Unconditioned stimulus.
Discriminative stimulus.

97

B. F. Skinner's work elaborated what E. L. Thorndike had called:

The law of effect.

98

When grocery shopping with his mother, 4-year-old Hakim sometimes throws temper tantrums if his mother refuses his requests for a particular snack food. Parent-training experts would suggest that his mother should:

Threaten to punish Hakim if he continues his tantrums.
Continue shopping while ignoring Hakim's tantrums.
*Return any snack foods that are already in her cart to the store shelves.

99

A partial reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response after an unpredictable number of responses is a ________ schedule.

Variable-ratio.

100

Conditioning is the process of:

Learning associations.

101

Purchasing state lottery tickets is reinforced with monetary winnings on a ________ schedule.

Variable-ratio.

102

Negative reinforcers ________ the rate of operant responding, and punishments ________ the rate of operant responding.

Increase; decrease.

103

After a week at college, Su-Chuan has formed a mental representation of the layout of the campus and no longer gets lost. Su-Chuan has developed a:

Cognitive map.

104

In classical conditioning, generalization refers to the tendency for the conditioned response to be evoked by stimuli that are similar to the:

Conditioned stimulus.

105

After learning to fear a white rat, Little Albert responded with fear to the sight of a rabbit. This best illustrates the process of:

Generalization.