Exploring Psychology-Chapter 8 Flashcards Preview

Psychology 101-Summer 2015 Paula Frioli-Peters > Exploring Psychology-Chapter 8 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Exploring Psychology-Chapter 8 Deck (99):
1

Our inability to remember information presented in the seconds just before we fall asleep is most likely due to:

Encoding failure.

2

The finding that people who sleep after learning a list of nonsense syllables forget less than people who stay awake provides evidence that forgetting may involve:

Interference.

3

Which of the following questions would best enable you to remember that you saw the word PEACH on today's test?

Is the word a type of fruit?

4

Which measure of memory retention assesses the amount of time saved when learning material again?

Relearning.

5

Watching a TV soap opera involving marital conflict and divorce led Andrea to recall several instances in which her husband had mistreated her. The effect of the TV program on Andrea's recall provides an example of:

Priming.

6

After being asked to remember three consonants, participants in a study by Peterson and Peterson counted aloud backward by threes to prevent:

Rehearsal.

7

Karl and Dee had a joyful wedding ceremony. After their painful divorce, however, they began to remember the wedding as a somewhat hectic and unpleasant event. Their recollections best illustrate the nature of:

Memory construction.

8

Proactive interference refers to the:

Disruptive effect of prior learning on the recall of new information.

9

Your activated but limited-capacity memory is called ________ memory.

Short-term.

10

The recall of sad experiences is often primed by feelings of sadness. This most clearly illustrates:

Mood-congruent memory.

11

We are more likely to recall adjectives if asked how well they describe us than if asked how well they describe someone else. This illustrates:

The self-reference effect.

12

Which part of the brain plays a key role in forming and storing the implicit memories created by classical conditioning?

Cerebellum.

13

We encode implicit memories by means of:

Automatic processing.

14

When people are asked to recall a list of words they had earlier memorized, they often substitute synonyms for some of the words on the original list. This best illustrates the effects of:

Semantic processing.

15

Children can better remember an ancient Latin verse if they rehearse the meanings of the Latin words. This best illustrates the value of:

Deep processing.

16

Associating carrots with a mental image of a bun, milk with a mental image of a shoe, and paper towels with a mental image of a tree best illustrates:

The peg-word system.

17

Judy is embarrassed because she momentarily fails to remember a good friend's name. Judy's poor memory most likely results from a failure in:

Retrieval.

18

Chunking refers to:

The organization of information into meaningful units.

19

Procedural memories for well-learned skills such as how to ride a bicycle are typically ________ memories.:

Working.
*Implicit.
Sensory.

20

An inability to access information in long-term memory is known as:

Retrieval failure.

21

The retention of encoded information over time refers to:

Storage.

22

Storage is to encoding as ________ is to ________.

Retention; acquisition.
*Explicit memory; implicit memory.

23

Conscious rehearsal of what you just heard a friend tell you requires:

Working memory.

24

Automatic processing most clearly occurs without:

Conscious rehearsal.

25

Research by Kandel and Schwartz on sea slugs indicates that memory formation is associated with the:

Release of certain neurotransmitters.

26

A conscious memory of the name of the first president of the United States is a(n) ________ memory.

Explicit.

27

Proactive interference refers to the:

Disruptive effect of prior learning on the recall of new information.

28

The tendency to recall the first and last items in a list better than the middle items is known as the ________ effect.

Serial position.

29

Among contemporary memory researchers, increasing numbers think that ______ rarely, if ever, occurs.

Repression.

30

When people are asked to recall a list of words they had earlier memorized, they often substitute synonyms for some of the words on the original list. This best illustrates the effects of:

Semantic processing.

31

Elevated levels of stress hormones most clearly contribute to developing:

Iconic memories.
Anterograde amnesia.
*Flashbulb memories.

32

Research on young children's false eyewitness recollections has indicated that:

It is surprisingly difficult for both children and professional interviewers to reliably separate the
children's true memories from false memories.

33

When Tony is in a bad mood, he interprets his parents' comments as criticisms. When he's in a good mood, he interprets the same types of parental comments as helpful suggestions. This best illustrates that our emotional states influence the process of:

Encoding.

34

After learning the combination for his new locker at school, Milton is unable to remember the combination for his year-old bicycle lock. Milton is experiencing the effects of:

Retroactive interference.

35

Implicit memory is to explicit memory as ________ is to ________.

Automatic processing; effortful processing.

36

We are unable to consciously attend to most of the sights and sounds that are continually bombarding us. This fact most clearly contributes to:

Encoding failure.

37

A full week after Usha hears her mother read her a list of 12 different farm animals, Usha is most likely to remember the animals ________ of the list.

At the beginning.

38

During her psychology test, Kelsey could not remember the meaning of the term retroactive interference. Surprisingly, however, she accurately remembered that the term appeared on the first line of a right-hand page in her textbook. Her memory of this incidental information is best explained in terms of:

*Automatic processing.
The spacing effect.

39

Elevated levels of stress hormones most clearly contribute to developing:

Flashbulb memories.

40

People should avoid back-to-back study times for learning Spanish and French vocabulary in order to minimize:

Interference.

41

Déjà vu refers to the:

Eerie sense of having previously experienced a situation or event.

42

An iconic memory is a ________ memory.

Sensory.

43

To remember the information presented in her psychology textbook, Susan often relates it to her own life experiences. Susan's strategy is an effective memory aid because it facilitates:

Deep processing.

44

A loss of an encoded memory as a result of a gradual fading of the physical memory trace best illustrates:

Storage decay.

45

The persistence of learning over time most clearly depends on:

Memory.

46

Karl Lashley trained rats to solve a maze and then removed pieces of their cortexes. He observed that storage of their maze memories:

Was not restricted to specific regions of the cortex.

47

Damage to the hippocampus would most likely interfere with a person's ability to learn:

The names of newly introduced people.

48

Shelly was able to remember the names of three new class members for only a minute or two after they had been introduced to her. The new class members' names were briefly stored in her ________ memory.

Short-term.

49

Previously learned information often facilitates our learning of new information. This phenomenon is called:

Positive transfer.

50

Words, images, and other bits of information used to access a stored memory are called:

Retrieval cues.

51

Echoic memory refers to:

A momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli.

52

Recall of what you have learned is often improved when your physical surroundings at the time of retrieval and encoding are the same. This best illustrates:

Context-dependent memory.

53

Every semester Dr. Frioli recognizes all her students and know their names. Once in a while when she sees students from previous semester she has hard time remembering their names because she keeps confusing them with her current semester students' names. She is experiencing:

Retroactive interference.

54

Encoding words based on the appearance of the word's letters involves:

Shallow processing.

55

Cheri doesn't remember that she got sick after eating oatmeal on several occasions in early childhood. However, whenever she smells oatmeal she experiences a classically conditioned feeling of nausea. Cheri's conditioned reaction indicates that she retains a(n) ________ memory.

Implicit.

56

Ebbinghaus' use of nonsense syllables to study memory led to the discovery that:

The amount remembered depends on the time spent learning.

57

Arnold so easily remembers his old girlfriend's phone number that he finds it difficult to recall his new girlfriend's number. Arnold's difficulty best illustrates:

Proactive interference.

58

George Miller proposed that about seven information bits constitutes the capacity of ________ memory.

Short-term.

59

Which neural center in the limbic system helps process explicit memories for storage?

Hippocampus.

60

Remembering how to solve a puzzle without any conscious recollection that you can do so best illustrates ________ memory.

Implicit.

61

Recalling information and holding it in working memory requires that many brain regions send input to your:

Frontal lobes.

62

After hearing the sound of an ambulance, you may be momentarily predisposed to interpret a friend's brief coughing spell as a symptom of serious illness. This best illustrates the impact of:

Priming.

63

After attending group therapy sessions for adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse, Karen mistakenly remembered details from others' traumatic life stories as part of her own life history. This best illustrates the dangers of:

Source amnesia.

64

After having brain surgery to stop severe seizures, Henry Molaison could recall events he experienced prior to the surgery but was unable to form new conscious memories. Molaison's memory difficulty most clearly illustrates:

Anterograde amnesia.

65

Jamille is taking French in school. She gets her best grades on vocabulary tests if she studies for 15 minutes every day for 8 days than if she crams for 2 hours the night before the test. This illustrates what is known as:

The spacing effect.

66

The experience of memory loss is called:

Amnesia.

67

Retention of skills and classically conditioned associations without conscious recollection is known as ________ memory.

Implicit.

68

Rabbits fail to learn a conditioned eyeblink response when the function of different pathways in their ________ is surgically disrupted.

Cerebellum.

69

A good night's sleep improves recall of the previous day's events by facilitating the transfer of memories from the:

Hippocampus to the cortex.

70

The integration of new incoming information with knowledge retrieved from long-term memory involves the activity of:

Working memory.

71

Encoding that requires attention and conscious awareness is called:

Effortful processing.

72

Students who study throughout the term and then restudy course material at the end of a semester to pass a comprehensive final are especially likely to demonstrate long-term retention of the course material. This best illustrates:

The spacing effect.

73

The difference between automatic and effortful processing best illustrates:

The two-track mind.

74

By consciously rehearsing to-be-learned facts in many separate study sessions throughout the semester, you are most clearly taking advantage of:

The spacing effect.

75

Our assumptions about the past often influence the manner in which information is retrieved from long-term memory. This fact is most relevant to appreciating the importance of:

Memory construction.

76

Effortful processing most clearly requires:

Working memory.

77

Retroactive interference involves the disruption of:

Memory retrieval.

78

Sabrina went to the store for furniture polish, carrots, pencils, ham, sponges, celery, notebook paper, and salami. She remembered to buy all these items by reminding herself that she needed food products that included meats and vegetables and that she needed nonfood products that included school supplies and cleaning aids. Sabrina made effective use of:

Hierarchical organization.

79

Sherry easily remembers the telephone reservation number for Holiday Inn by using the mnemonic 1-800-HOLIDAY. She is using a memory aid known as:

Chunking.

80

Which measure of memory is used on a test that requires matching glossary terms with their correct definitions?

Recognition.

81

The retention of encoded information over time refers to:

Storage.

82

Ebbinghaus found that memorizing familiar words required much less effort than memorizing nonsense syllables. This best illustrates the advantage of:

Semantic processing.

83

Which of the following has been suggested as an explanation for infantile amnesia?

The hippocampus is one of the last brain structures to mature.

84

The ability of some Alzheimer's patients to learn how to do something despite the fact that they have no conscious recall of learning their new skill best illustrates the need to distinguish between:

Explicit memory and implicit memory.

85

Research by Kandel and Schwartz on sea slugs indicates that memory formation is associated with the:

Release of certain neurotransmitters.

86

Some information in our fleeting ________ is encoded into short-term memory.

Sensory memory.

87

When asked how she felt 10 years ago regarding marijuana use, Cindy recalled attitudes closer to her current views than to the views she actually reported a decade earlier. This best illustrates:

*Memory construction.
Proactive interference.
The spacing effect.

88

The integration of new incoming information with knowledge retrieved from long-term memory involves the activity of:

Working memory.

89

You are most likely to automatically encode information about:

The sequence of your day's events.

90

Forming many associations between new course material and what you already know is an effective way to build a network of:

Retrieval cues.

91

After learning that kicking would move a crib mobile, infants showed that they recalled this learning best if they were tested in the same crib. This best illustrates:

Context-dependent memory.

92

Compulsive gamblers frequently recall losing less money than is actually the case. Their memory failure best illustrates:

Motivated forgetting.

93

The increase in synaptic firing potential that contributes to memory formation is known as:

Long-term potentiation.

94

When children are interviewed about their recollections of possible sexual abuse, their reports are especially credible if:

Involved adults have not discussed the issue with them prior to the interview.

95

Using your working memory to associate an unfamiliar textbook glossary term with other familiar words that are similar in meaning to the glossary term best illustrates:

Deep processing.

96

The testing effect is also known as:

A retrieval practice effect.

97

Stress hormones promote stronger memories by:

Decreasing the availability of serotonin.
Increasing the availability of glucose.
Decreasing the availability of epinephrine.

98

The process of encoding refers to:

Getting information into memory.

99

Using the mnemonic ROY G. BIV to remember the colors of the rainbow in the order of wavelength illustrates the use of:

*Chunking.
The spacing effect.
The peg-word system.