Exploring Psychology-Chapter 9 Flashcards Preview

Psychology 101-Summer 2015 Paula Frioli-Peters > Exploring Psychology-Chapter 9 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Exploring Psychology-Chapter 9 Deck (96):
1

Compared with traditional college entrance exams, assessments that include tests of Sternberg's three intelligences reveal ________ ethnic-group differences in intelligence and ________ accurate prediction of American students' first-year grades:

Reduced; more.

2

Sweden and Iceland exhibit little of the gender gap in mathematical abilities found in Turkey and Korea. This best illustrates that mental abilities are:

Socially influenced.

3

Boys outnumber girls at extremely ________ levels of verbal fluency and at extremely ________ levels of mathematical problem-solving ability.

Low; high.

4

Semantics refers to the:

Rules by which we derive meaning from sounds.

5

A condition involving intellectual disability caused by an extra chromosome in one's genetic makeup is known as:

Down syndrome.

6

An unwillingness to give up our beliefs even when the evidence proves us wrong is called:

Belief perseverance.

7

People with opposing views of capital punishment reviewed mixed evidence regarding its effectiveness as a crime deterrent. As a result, their opposing views differed more strongly than ever. This best illustrates:

Belief perseverance.

8

The characteristics of savant syndrome most directly suggest that intelligence is:

A diverse set of distinct abilities.

9

Brain scans reveal that identical twins' brains have ________ gray matter volume and ________ white matter volume.

Similar; similar.

10

After Paul's snow-skiing accident, doctors detected damage to his cerebral cortex in Wernicke's area. Because of the damage, Paul is most likely to experience difficulty in:

Understanding what others are saying.

11

Infants are first able to discriminate speech sounds during the ________ stage.

Babbling.

12

By demonstrating both intelligence and grit, highly successful people demonstrate the importance of both ability and:

Motivation.

13

An important aspect of social intelligence is called:

Emotional intelligence.

14

Human language appears to have evolved from:

Gestured communication.

15

Women have scored ________ on math tests when no male test-takers were in the tested group, and Blacks have scored ________ when tested by Blacks than when tested by Whites.

Higher; higher.

16

Wording a question or presenting an issue in such a way that it evokes a desired judgment is called:

Framing.

17

Psychologists use ________ to assess individuals' mental aptitudes and compare them with those of others.

Intelligence tests.

18

Expanding the number of possible solutions to a problem illustrates:

Divergent thinking.

19

Intelligence tests are biased in the sense that:

Performance differences among test-takers reflect their divergent cultural experiences.

20

Girls are most likely to outperform boys in a:

Grammar test.

21

Achievement tests are designed to:

Assess learned knowledge or skills.

22

An IQ of approximately 70 or below and difficulty adapting to the normal demands of life is most clearly an indication of:

An intellectual disability.

23

Mentally segmenting other's spoken sounds into individual words best illustrates a 7-month-old's capacity for:

Receptive language.

24

Energetic persistence in pursuit of challenging goals is most clearly an indication of:

Grit.

25

The smallest distinctive sound unit of language is called a:

Phoneme.

26

Twenty-five-year-old Alexandra has an intellectual disability and can neither read nor write. However, after hearing lengthy, unfamiliar, and complex musical selections just once, she can reproduce them precisely on the piano. It is likely that Alexandra is:

Someone with savant syndrome.

27

At some point during the babbling stage, infants begin to:

Lose their ability to discriminate sounds they never hear.

28

Which term refers to all the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating?

Cognition.

29

Weather forecasters typically avoid overconfidence when making weather predictions because they:

Promptly receive clear feedback on their accuracy.

30

After Miguel's recent automobile accident, doctors detected damage to his cerebral cortex in Broca's area. It is likely that Miguel will have difficulty:

Speaking fluently.

31

Wernicke's area is a region of the brain involved in:

Language comprehension.

32

Although intuition can at times hinder rationality, it is often adaptive because it facilitates:

Quick decisions.

33

The overconfidence phenomenon refers to the tendency to:

Underestimate the extent to which our beliefs an judgments are inaccurate.

34

Psychologists would calculate the relationship between intelligence test scores and school grades in order to assess the ________ of the intelligence test.

Predictive validity.

35

When Brandon was told that he correctly answered 80 percent of the items on a math achievement test, he asked how his performance compared with that of the average test-taker. Brandon's concern was directly related to the issue of:

Standardization.

36

The U.S. National Longitudinal Survey of Youth showed a small but significant positive correlation between youth's intelligence test scores and their subsequent:

Income levels.

37

Morphemes are:

The smallest speech units that carry meaning.

38

Simple thinking strategies that allow us to solve problems and make judgments efficiently are called:

Heuristics.

39

To assess mental age, Binet and Simon measured children's:

Reasoning skills.

40

A mental grouping of similar objects, events, ideas, and people is a(n):

Concept.

41

Expanding the number of possible solutions to a problem illustrates:

Divergent thinking.

42

After identifying an ethnically blended face as Asian rather than as Caucasian, Belgian students recalled the face as more closely resembling their ________ of an Asian face.

Prototype

43

Fluid intelligence refers most directly to a person's:

Ability to reason speedily and abstractly.

44

In contrast to our explicit conscious reasoning, our seemingly effortless and automatic feelings or thoughts are called:

Intuitions.

45

Introductory psychology students performed best on a midterm psychology test if they had previously spent five minutes a day visualizing themselves:

Studying effectively.

46

Which of the following terms refers to a person's accumulated knowledge and verbal skills?

Crystallized intelligence.

47

A measure of intelligence based on head size is likely to have a ________ level of reliability and a ________ level of validity.

High; low.

48

The best evidence that there is a critical period for language acquisition is the fact that:

People most easily master the grammar of a second language during childhood.

49

Introductory psychology students facing a midterm exam one week later spent five minutes each day visualizing themselves scanning the posted grade list, seeing their A grade, and feeling proud. This ________ simulation had ________ effect on their exam scores.

Outcome; little.

50

Those who define intelligence as academic aptitude are most likely to criticize:

Gardner's concept of multiple intelligences.

51

Language refers to the:

Spoken, written, or signed words and the ways they are combined to communicate meaning.

52

In the words “helped” and “called,” the “ed” ending is a(n):

Morpheme.

53

The ability to learn a new computer software program is to ________ as knowledge of state capitals is to ________.

Fluid intelligence; crystallized intelligence.

54

Terman's studies of 1500 California children with IQ scores over 135 indicated that these high-scoring children:

Were well-adjusted.

55

Noam Chomsky suggested that all human languages share a(n:

Universal grammar.

56

Tests designed to predict ability to learn new skills are called:

Aptitude tests.

57

A mental set is most likely to inhibit:

Creativity.

58

During prior school years, Charlie found it easy to get away with cheating on his tests. Now its not so easy so Charlie spends as many hours devising new ways to cheat as it would take him to study and perform well in an honest fashion. Charlie's shortsightedness best illustrates the consequences of:

A mental set.

59

Research participants were asked to identify a word that could be associated meaningfully with each of three other words. Solutions that occurred with sudden insight were accompanied by a burst of activity in the brain's ________ lobe.

Right temporal.

60

A test that measures or predicts what it is supposed to is said to have a high degree of:

Validity.

61

Which of the following best accounts for people's greater fear of commercial air flights than of driving an automobile?

Perceived control.

62

Which of the following terms refers to a person's accumulated knowledge and verbal skills?

Crystallized intelligence.

63

At the age of 15 months, Anita repeatedly cries “hoy” when she wants her mother to hold her. Anita is most likely in the ________ stage of language development.:

One-word.

64

Achievement tests are designed to:

Assess learned knowledge or skills.

65

The intelligence test scores of today's better-fed population ________ the scores of the 1930s population.

Are higher than.

66

The earliest stage of speech development is called the ________ stage.

Babbling.

67

The written exam for a driver's license would most likely be considered a(n) ________ test.

Achievement.

68

Spearman's g factor refers to:

A general intelligence that underlies successful performance on a wide variety of tasks.

69

The overconfidence phenomenon refers to the tendency to:

Underestimate the extent to which our beliefs and judgments are inaccurate.

70

The distribution of intelligence test scores in the general population forms a bell-shaped pattern. This pattern is called a:

Normal curve.

71

The most creative scientists are those who:

Are intrinsically motivated to solve problems.

72

Howard Gardner identified a total of ________ relatively independent intelligences.

Eight.

73

To determine whether a child's intellectual development was fast or slow, Binet and Simon assessed the child's:

Mental age.

74

The ability to delay immediate pleasures in pursuit of long-range rewards is most clearly a characteristic associated with:

Emotional intelligence.

75

A televised image of a starving child had a greater impact on Mr. White's perception of the extensiveness of world hunger than did a statistical chart summarizing the tremendous scope of the problem. This suggests that his assessment of the world hunger problem is influenced by:

The availability heuristic.

76

Psychologists use ________ to assess individuals' mental aptitudes and compare them with those of others.

Intelligence tests.

77

Interventions that promote intelligence teach early teens that the brain is like a muscle that strengthens with use. This idea is designed to encourage the teens to view intelligence as:

Changeable over time.

78

It has been suggested that Alaskan Eskimos' rich vocabulary for describing snow enables them to perceive differences in snow conditions that would otherwise go unnoticed. This suggestion most clearly illustrates:

Linguistic determinism.

79

Kevin did not know whether the locker room was located down the short hallway to his right or down the long hallway to his left. Crossing his fingers, he decided to try the short hallway. His problem-strategy best illustrates:

Trial and error.

80

By about age 7, those who have not been exposed to either a spoken or a signed language gradually lose their ability to master any language. This illustrates the importance of ________ for language acquisition.

A critical period.

81

After spending two hours trying to solve an engineering problem, Amira finally gave up. As she was trying to fall asleep that night, a solution to the problem popped into her head. Amira's experience best illustrates:

Insight.

82

Experts would most likely agree that intelligence is a(n):

Mental ability to learn from experience.

83

Intelligence tests are biased in the sense that:

Performance differences among test-takers reflect their divergent cultural experiences.

84

Repeatedly assessing the intelligence of the same group of people at different times across their life span best illustrates a:

Longitudinal study.

85

Researchers assess the correlation between scores obtained on two halves of a single test in order to measure the ________ of a test.

Reliability.

86

People with opposing views of capital punishment reviewed mixed evidence regarding its effectiveness as a crime deterrent. As a result, their opposing views differed more strongly than ever. This best illustrates:

Belief perseverance.

87

A single, memorable case of welfare fraud can have a greater impact on people's estimates of welfare abuse than do statistics showing that this case is actually the exception to the rule. This illustrates that judgments are influenced by:

The availability heuristic.

88

Research on racial and ethnic differences in intelligence indicates that:

the average mathematics achievement test scores of Asian students are higher than those of North American students.

89

Intrinsic motivation is thought to be an important component of:

Creativity.

90

People are likely to take less time to recognize a woman as a nurse than a man as a nurse because a woman more closely resembles their nurse:

Prototype.

91

No matter what language we first use, our first words are mostly:

Nouns.

92

If a test is standardized, this means that:

A person's test performance can be compared with that of a representative pretested group.

93

Your psychology professor has announced that the next test will assess your understanding of sensation and perception. When you receive the test, however, you find that very few questions actually relate to these topics. In this instance, you would be most concerned about the ________ of the test.

Content validity.

94

Those diagnosed with an intellectual disability score approximately 70 or below on an intelligence test and also demonstrate a limitation in:

Adaptive behavior.

95

The belief that intelligence is changeable facilitates:

Growth mind-set.

96

When completing a verbal aptitude test, members of an ethnic minority group are particularly likely to perform below their true ability levels if they believe that the test:

Is biased against members of their own ethnic group.