Exploring Psychology-Chapter 5 Flashcards Preview

Psychology 101-Summer 2015 Paula Frioli-Peters > Exploring Psychology-Chapter 5 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Exploring Psychology-Chapter 5 Deck (101):
1

Gender identity refers to:

The sense of being male or female.

2

Teenage girls are especially vulnerable to STIs because of their:

Lower levels of antibodies.

3

Masters and Johnson identified orgasm as the ________ stage of the sexual response cycle.

Third.

4

Social learning theory emphasizes that:

Observation and imitation play a crucial role in the gender-typing process.

5

Compared with boys, girls are more likely to play in ________ groups.

Small.

6

On mental rotation tasks, gays and lesbians have been observed to score ________ than heterosexual men and ________ than heterosexual women.

Lower; higher.

7

Women are more likely than men to:

Tend and befriend as a way to cope with stress.

8

Compared with women, men are more likely to:
initiate sexual activity.
think about sex.
make sacrifices to gain sex.

Do all of these things.

9

Although Wendy is genetically male, she dresses in women's clothes in order to express her strong sense of identity as a female. Wendy could best be described as:

Transgender.

10

People whose gender identity feels mismatched with their birth sex are:

Transgender.

11

Alicia experiences distress due to recurrent vaginal pain that interferes with sexual intercourse. Her difficulty best illustrates:

A sexual dysfunction.

12

EDITED - Which sex hormone is secreted in greater amounts by females than by males?

Estradiol.

13

Research on the environmental conditions that influence sexual orientation indicates that:

The reported backgrounds of homosexuals and Heterosexuals are similar.

14

Teens who use alcohol prior to sexual intercourse experience:

Reduced self-awareness and are less likely to use condoms.

15

Gay men report ________ interest in uncommitted sex and ________ interest in their partner's physical attractiveness than do lesbian women.

More; more.

16

The first appearance of secondary sex characteristics is most likely to be associated with the onset of:

Puberty.

17

The human immunodeficiency virus has been found to be the cause of:


AIDS.

18

By manipulating a single gene, scientists have been able to control sexual orientation in:

Fruit flies.

19

Gender differences in erotic plasticity are best illustrated by the fact that women:

Tend to be more changeable than men in sexual orientation.

20

Orgasmic dysfunction is one form of:

Sexual dysfunction.

21

If pregnant sheep are injected with ________ during a critical period of fetal development, their female offspring will show homosexual behavior.

Testosterone.

22

Which of the following is an example of a secondary sex characteristic?

Male facial hair.

23

Aggression is defined in psychology as:

Physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt someone.

24

A birth-order effect seems to play a role in sexual orientation among:

Men who are right-handed.

25

Men and women are most likely to differ in their:

Physical aggressiveness.

26

When looking for someone to whom they can confide their personal worries, women usually turn to ________ and men usually turn to ________.

Women; women.

27

In 1998, Viagra was introduced for the treatment of:

Erectile dysfunction.

28

Compared with men, women experience a greater risk of:

Eating disorders.

29

Sex hormone levels experienced between the second and fifth months after conception are most likely to influence sexual orientation in later life due to their impact on:

Brain development.

30

In considering gender differences, you should remember that:

Gender similarities are much greater than gender differences.

31

Compared with females, males use conversation to:

Communicate solutions.

32

The more sexual content adolescents view on TV and in movies, the more likely they are to:

Perceive their peers as sexually active.

33

It has been suggested that women are genetically predisposed to be more cautious in their mate selection than men are because the birthing process is more time-consuming for women than for men. This best illustrates the logic of:

Evolutionary psychology.

34

Among unmarried American teens, sexual abstinence is more likely for those with ________ levels of intelligence and ________ levels of religious engagement.

Higher; higher

35

How would evolutionary psychologists explain men's more accepting attitude toward casual sex?

Men can distribute their genes widely.

36

EDITED - In humans sexual hormones influence sexual behavior in a looser way. More than in other mammalian females, the sexual drive in women is responsive to their ________ levels.

Testosterone.

37

Twelve-year-old Migdalia insists on wearing very feminine-looking clothes because she wants to appear ladylike. This best illustrates the influence of:

Gender typing.

38

Jacob is distressed by his persistent inability to attain an adequate erection during sexual intercourse. His difficulty best illustrates:

A sexual dysfunction.

39

Condoms are most helpful in protecting against:

HIV infections.

40

During middle and late adulthood, women become progressively ________ assertive and men become progressively ________ domineering.

More; less.

41

One's sexual orientation refers to a(n) ________ members of either one's own sex, or both sexes.

Enduring sexual attraction toward.

42

EDITED - Among the hallmarks of growing up are a boy's first ejaculation and a girl's first menstrual period, which also are called:

Spermarche, menarche.

43

Professor Smith emphasizes that gender similarities and differences are products of a continuous interplay among genetically predisposed traits, culturally shaped roles, and personally constructed expectations and assumptions. The professor's emphasis best illustrates:

A biopsychosocial approach.

44

In everyday behavior, men are LESS likely than women to:

Smile at others.

45

Both a kin selection theory and an alternative “fertile females” theory have been used to explain the transmission of genes that promote:

Homosexuality.

46

One early influence of prenatal testosterone is on the organism's:

Brain development.

47

The refractory period is the:

Time span after orgasm during which a male cannot be aroused to another orgasm.

48

The sex chromosome found in both men and women is called the ________ chromosome.

X.

49

Atypical hormone exposure during prenatal development sometimes leads to the development of masculine-appearing genitals in female newborns. This best illustrates:

An intersex condition.

50

Despite being arrested for indecent exposure in a public setting, Max continues to experience the urge to sexually expose himself to unsuspecting strangers. His difficulty best illustrates:

A paraphilia.

51

Exhibitionism and fetishism are examples of:

Paraphilias.

52

A biological influence on homosexuality is most clearly seen from evidence of:

Sexual relations between same-sex partners in several hundred species.

53

Recurrent sexually arousing fantasies and behaviors involving nonhuman objects is an indication of:

A paraphilia.

54

The first ejaculation is to an adolescent boy as ________ is to an adolescent girl.

Menarche.

55

Men in their ________ are most likely to be sexually attracted to women who are several years older rather than several years younger than themselves.

Teens.

56

In most nonhuman mammals, females become sexually receptive when:

Estrogen levels are highest.

57

The body structures that enable reproduction are the:

Primary sex characteristics.

58

The maternal relatives of homosexual men produce ________ offspring than the maternal relatives of heterosexual men, and male homosexuality is more likely to be transmitted by genes from the ________ side of the family.

More; mother's.

59

Which of the following is an STI?

Herpes.

60

During the resolution stage of the sexual response cycle, people are most likely to experience a rapid decrease in arousal if:

They have just experienced orgasm.

61

Which of the following terms refers to the socially constructed roles and characteristics by which a culture defines male and female?

Gender.

62

Simon LeVay discovered that a neural cluster located in the ________ was larger in heterosexual men than in homosexual men.

Hypothalamus.

63

A gender role refers to:

A set of expected behaviors for males or for females.

64

Sex reassignment surgery today would most likely be recommended for individuals who are:

Transgender.

65

Primary sex characteristics are to ________ as secondary sex characteristics are to ________.

Female ovaries; deepened male voice.

66

When teased by his older sister, 9-year-old Vijay does not cry because he has learned that boys are not expected to. Vijay's behavior best illustrates the importance of:

Gender roles.

67

Males have ________ and females have ________.

One X chromosome; two X chromosomes.

68

The hormone that stimulates the growth of male sex organs during prenatal development is called:

Testosterone.

69

Children tend to organize their worlds into male and female categories. This best illustrates the importance of:

Gender schemas.

70

Studies in both North America and China find that married fathers tend to have ________ than bachelors or married men without children.

Lower testosterone levels.

71

EDITED - Women are most likely to be sexually attracted to men who seem:

Mature and affluent.

72

Research on the sexual response cycle indicates that:

Enough sperm may be released prior to male orgasm to enable conception.

73

The first stage of the sexual response cycle is:

An excitement stage.

74

Research on sex hormones and human sexual behavior indicates that:

Sexual desire rises slightly at ovulation among women with mates.

75

Many sexually active American adolescents fail to avoid pregnancy because:

They are uncomfortable discussing contraception with their sexual partner.

76

EDITED - Secondary sex characteristics are to ________ as primary sex characteristics are to ________.

Deepened male voice; external genitalia.

77

A human egg contains ________ chromosome and a human sperm contains ________ chromosome.

An X; either an X or a Y.

78

A boy who exhibits traditionally masculine interests and behavior patterns demonstrates the influence of:

Gender typing.

79

The hypothalamus lights up in an area governing sexual arousal when ________ are given a whiff of scent derived from men's sweat.

Straight women and gay men.

80

Compared with European teens, U.S. teens have a ________ rate of STIs and ________ a rate of pregnancy.

Higher; higher.

81

The belief that boys are more independent than girls is a:

Gender schema.

82

The most common way AIDS is transmitted is through:

Unprotected sex with an infected person.

83

Those who suggest that choices we make today determine what our future will be like are emphasizing the importance of:

Human responsibility.

84

Research suggests that the fraternal birth-order effect may be a result of:

Maternal immune responses.

85

Which of the following terms refers to the socially constructed roles and characteristics by which a culture defines male and female?

Gender.

86

With repeated exposure to any erotic stimulus, our emotional response often lessens. This illustrates the process of:

Habituation.

87

The descriptions of orgasm written by men and women are ________, and PET scans indicate that ________ subcortical brain regions are active in men and women during orgasm.

Similar; the same.

88

A problem that consistently interferes with one's ability to complete the sexual response cycle is called:

A sexual dysfunction.

89

Kamil, a 33-year-old lawyer, experiences premature ejaculation. Through behaviorally oriented therapy, he would most likely learn to minimize his problem by:

Learning ways to control his urge to ejaculate.

90

EDITED - Casual, impulsive sex is most frequent among:

Males with traditional masculine attitudes.

91

Behaviors expected of those who occupy a particular social position define a:

Role.

92

Professor Langley emphasizes that premature sexual activity among high school students involves the interplay of alcohol consumption, mass media norms, and teens' underestimation of their vulnerability to sexually transmitted infections. The professor's emphasis best illustrates:

A biopsychosocial approach.

93

Compared with women, men are ________ likely to feel comfortable about having casual sex with different partners and ________ likely to cite affection as a reason for their first sexual intercourse.

More; less.

94

Gender typing refers to the acquisition of:

A traditional masculine or feminine role.

95

A gender role refers to:

A set of expected behaviors for males or for females.

96

The gender gap in aggression is MOST clearly illustrated by gender differences in:

Violent crime rates.

97

The first stage of the sexual response cycle is:

An excitement stage.

98

The body structures that enable reproduction are the:

Primary sex characteristics.

99

Lower rates of pregnancy have been observed among teens who have:

Participated in a service learning program as tutors or teachers' aides.

100

With repeated exposure to any erotic stimulus, our emotional response often lessens. This illustrates the process of:

Habituation.

101

The belief that boys are more independent than girls is a:

Gender schema.