Exploring Psychology- Chapter 3 Flashcards Preview

Psychology 101-Summer 2015 Paula Frioli-Peters > Exploring Psychology- Chapter 3 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Exploring Psychology- Chapter 3 Deck (92):
1

Delta waves are most clearly associated with ______ sleep.

NREM-3.

2

Three hours after going to sleep, Shoshanna's heart rate increases, her breathing becomes more rapid, and her eyes move rapidly under her closed lids. Research suggests that Shoshanna is:

Dreaming.

3

Our inability to fall asleep early, as we had planned, is most likely a reflection of:

The circadian rhythm.

4

The greatest danger of viewing drug addiction as a disease is that this may lead drug addicts to:

Feel powerless and unable to overcome the disease.

5

When cocaine is snorted, injected, or smoked, it produces a rush of euphoria by:

Blocking the re-uptake of neurotransmitters.

6

Which theory emphasizes that dreams play a role in considering the day's experiences in our memories?

Information-processing theory.

7

Sleep deprivation ______ the production of body fat by ______ levels of the stress hormone cortisol.

Stimulates; increasing.

8

Junes correct solution of a novel arithmetic problem was simultaneously facilitated by unconscious interferences and the conscious application of mathematical principles. This best illustrates the value of:

Dual processing.

9

Even if musically inclined, it is difficult to tap a steady three times with your left hand while tapping four times with your right hand because both tasks require:

Conscious attention.

10

When a man provided directions to a construction worker, two experimenters rudely interrupted by passing between them carrying a door. The man's failure to notice that the construction worker was replaced by a different person during the interruption illustrates:

Change blindness.

11

REM sleep is:

Inhibited by alcohol and inhibited by sleeping pills.

12

During a heated argument with his teenage daughter, Mr. Reid lapsed into a state of REM sleep. Mr. Reid apparently suffers from:

Narcolepsy.

13

The rhythmic bursts of brain activity that occur during NREM-2 sleep are called?

Sleep spindles.

14

Unlike alcohol, the THC in marijuana:

Lingers in the body for a week or more.

15

What is bad advise for someone trying to overcome insomnia?

Drink a glass of wine 15 minutes before bedtime.

16

The activation of light sensitive retinal proteins in our eyes signals our brains to decrease production of:

Melatonin.

17

Amphetamines are to ______ as barbiturates are to______.

Stimulates; depressants.

18

Research studies of the content of dreams indicate that:

People are more likely to dream of failure than of success.

19

THC, the active ingredient in ______, is classified as a ______.

Marijuana; hallucinogen.

20

Focusing conscious awareness on a particular stimulus is called?

Selective attention.

21

Dreams often involve sudden emotional reaction and surprises in scene. This best serves to support the theory that dreams:

Are triggered by random bursts of neural activity.

22

Psychoactive drugs influence neurotransmission by stimulating, mimicking, or ______ the activity of neuroransmitters.

Inhibiting.

23

A bank teller was so distracted by the sight of a bank robber's weapon, that she failed to perceive any important features of the criminal's physical appearance. This best illustrates:

Selective attention.

24

During REM sleep, your skeletal muscles are relaxed because messages from the motor cortex are blocked by the:

Brain stem.

25

Jana has had such terrible alcohol withdrawal symptoms that she will not try again to cut back on her habit of drinking too much. Jana is most likely suffering from:

Alcohol dependance.

26

Psychedelic drugs that distort perceptions and evoke sensory images in the absence of sensory input are called:

Hallucinogens.

27

Genital arousal is most likely to be associated with:

REM sleep.

28

Increased activity in the ______ during REM sleep may best explain why dream images are often accompanied by a string emotional tone.

Amygdala.

29

Experimental participants who consumed alcohol rather than a placebo beverage were less likely to notice that their minds were wandering during a reading task. This best illustrates that alcohol reduces:

Self awareness.

30

In which of the following disorders does the person repeatedly stop breathing while asleep?

Sleep apnea.

31

Prolonged and excessive drinking can shrink the brain most intensely in ______ who have ______ of a stomach enzyme that digests alcohol.

Women; less

32

The change in brain chemistry that offsets of a psychoactive drug is called?

Neuroadaptation.

33

After sleeping for about an hour and a half, Jose enters a phase of paradoxical sleep. He is likely to have:

Very relaxed muscles.

34

As adults grow older, they tend to:

Spend less time in deep sleep.

35

Which of the following is an amphetamine derivative that acts as a mild hallucinogen?

Ecstasy.

36

The use of barbiturates ______ anxiety and ______ nervous system activity.

Decreases; decreases.

37

Exposure to bright light causes the:

Pineal gland to decrease the production of melatonin.

38

People who regularly sleep less than normal experience an ______ risk of depression and an ______ risk of obesity.

Increased; increased.

39

Nightmares are to ______ as night terrors are to ______.

REM sleep; NREM-3 sleep.

40

At 3 o'clock in the morning, John has already slept for 4 hours. As long as his sleep continues,w e can expect an increasing occurrence of:

REM sleep.

41

Young teens are most likely to start smoking in order to:

Gain social acceptance.

42

A condition where a person can respond to a visual stimulus without consciously experiencing it is known as:

Blindsight.

43

Consciousness is:

Our awareness of ourselves and our environment.

44

At 1 o'clock Luis gets out of bed and begins to sleepwalk. An EEG of his brain activity is most likely to indicate the presence of:

Delta waves.

45

REM sleep is called paradoxical sleep because:

Our nervous system is highly active, while our voluntary muscles hardly move.

46

What is the best advise for someone concerned about occasional insomnia?

Relax and drink a glass of milk before bedtime.

47

Circadian rhythm refers to:

A pattern of biological functioning that occurs on a roughly 24 hour cycle.

48

By triggering the release of epinephrine and norepinephrine, ______ boosts alertness and diminishes appetite.

Nicotine.

49

A periodic, natural loss of consciousness that involves distinct stages is known as:

Sleep.

50

Chemical substances that alter perceptions and moods are called ______ drugs.

Psychoactive.

51

A capacity to monitor simultaneously the color, shape, and motion of an object best illustrates:

Parallel processing.

52

Compared with unconscious information processing, conscious information processing is relatively:

Slow and especially effective for solving new problems.

53

The simultaneous processing of information at both conscious and unconscious levels is called:

Dual Processing.

54

Drivers are slow to detect traffic signals if they are talking on their phone. this best illustrates the impact of:

Selective attention.

55

A need to take a larger and larger dose of sleeping pills to avoid insomnia indicates:

Tolerance.

56

An official ranking of drugs according to the likelihood of their hooking, the user ranked ______ as the most addictive.

Tobacco.

57

Females with a history of physical abuse are at ______ risk for substance addiction. Those with a history of eating disorders are at ______ risk for substance addiction.

Increased; increased.

58

REM rebound involves the:

Tendency for REM sleep to increase following REM sleep deprivation.

59

The repeated self-harming consumption of a psychoactive drug is an indication of:

A substance-related disorder.

60

After suffering trauma, people commonly report nightmares. One of the benefits if these nightmares is that they help:

Extinguish daytime fears.

61

Consciousness is to unconsciousness as ______ is to ______.

Sequential processing; parallel processing.

62

A specialty area that focuses on the connections between brain activity and mental processes is known as:

Cognitive neuroscience.

63

Although Max never experiences caffeine withdrawal symptoms, he feels he needs coffee every morning as part of his daily routine. Max best illustrates:

Psychological dependence.

64

Symptoms of drug withdrawal are likely to be:

Most sever among those with high levels of drug tolerance.

65

Which theory suggests that dreams are mental processes to random bursts of neural stimulation.

Neural activation theory.

66

Fast and jerky movements of the eyes are especially likely to be associated with:

REM sleep.

67

Amphetamines ______ appetite and ______ self-confidence.

Decrease; increase.

68

The human sleep cycle repeats itself about every:

90 minutes.

69

Which of the following is a psychedelic drug?
a. LSD
b. Cocaine
c. Heroin
d. Nicotine

LSD.

70

Depressants are drugs such as:

Barbiturates and opiates.

71

Traffic accident rates have been known to ______ after the spring time change and ______ after the fall change back to standard time.

Increase; decrease.

72

Bed wetting is most likely to occur at the end of ______ sleep.

NREM-3

73

Brain regions that are active as people learn to perform a visual-discrimination task are especially likely to be active again later as they experience:

REM sleep.

74

Night terror typically occur during:

NREM-3 sleep.

75

Physical pain and intense cravings indicate:

Physical dependance.

76

Our inability to process all the sensory information available to us at any single point in time best illustrates the necessity of:

Selective attention.

77

A rewarding consequence of cigarette smoking is that is reduces:

Sensitivity to pain.

78

US sixth graders ______ their friends use of marijuana, and university students ______ their fellow students enthusiasm for alcohol.

Overestimate; overestimate.

79

When asked to watch a video and press a key each time a black-shirted player passed a basketball, most research participants remained unaware if an umbrella-toting woman strolling across the screen. This illustrates:

Inattentional blindness.

80

Which drugs are most likely to be prescribed as tranquilizers?

Barbiturates.

81

Smokers with ______ levels of nicotine tolerance are likely to suffer the most severe withdrawal symptoms when they discontinue smoking.

High.

82

Delta waves are most clearly associated with ______ sleep.

NREM-3.

83

Particularly among men, sleep apnea is linked with:

Obesity.

84

Soon after taking a psychoactive drug, Zachary experienced a diminished appetite, an increased heart rate, dilated pupils, and feelings of self-confidence and euphoria. Zachary was most likely experiencing the effects of:

Cocaine.

85

Neural activity that reenacts and promotes recall of prior experiences in most cases is associated with:

Slow-wave sleep.

86

Repeated use of an opiate:

Decreases the brain's production of endorphins.

87

Sleep deprivation increases levels of the hunger arousing hormone______ and decreases the levels of hunger suppressing hormone ______.

Ghrelin; leptin.

88

Brain regions that are active as people learn to perform a visual-discrimination task are likely to be active again later as they experience:

REM sleep.

89

The brain waves associated with REM sleep are most similar to those of:

NREM-1 sleep.

90

The change in brain chemistry that offsets the effects of a psychoactive drug is called?

Neuroadaptation.

91

The best indication that dreaming serves a necessary biological function is provided by the fact that:

Most mammals experience REM rebound.

92

The divided consciousness theory of hypnosis receives support from evidence that:

Hypnotized people can endure pain without experiencing emotional distress.