Exploring Psychology-Chapter 12 Flashcards Preview

Psychology 101-Summer 2015 Paula Frioli-Peters > Exploring Psychology-Chapter 12 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Exploring Psychology-Chapter 12 Deck (101):
1

Janine is repulsed by the thought of watching a pornographic video. Freud would have attributed these feelings to Janine's:

Superego.

2

According to Freud, the part of personality that represents our sense of right and wrong and our ideal standards is the:

Superego.

3

Being highly imaginative is most closely related to the Big Five trait dimension of:

Openness.

4

Reaction formation refers to the process by which people:

Consciously express feelings that are the opposite of unacceptable unconscious impulses.

5

EDITED - A characteristic pattern of behavior or tendency to act and feel in a certain way is called a:

Personality trait.

6

Projective tests are most closely associated with ________ theories.

Psychodynamic.

7

Jacinda failed her last history midterm. Which of the following conclusions would be most representative of a self-serving bias on Jacinda's part?

“I think the test questions were ambiguous and confusing.”

8

The humanistic perspective emphasized the importance of:

Self-determination.

9

Maslow placed ________ at the base of his hierarchy of needs.

Bodily needs.

10

Freud referred to a lingering focus of pleasure-seeking energies at an earlier psychosexual stage as:

Fixation.

11

Sheryl is very outgoing and fun-loving. She prefers to be around other people most of the time. She most clearly ranks high on the Big Five trait dimension known as:

Extraversion.

12

The humanistic perspective is to Maslow as the social-cognitive perspective is to:

Bandura.

13

People's scores on a test of extraversion are ________ predictors of how extraverted they will act in one particular situation. Their scores are ________ predictors of how extraverted they will act on average over many different situations.

Poor; good.

14

Rusty is a heavy drinker who overestimates the extent to which other people also engage in heavy drinking. Rusty's overestimate best illustrates:

The false consensus effect.

15

Overestimating the extent to which others notice and evaluate our appearance and performance is called:

The spotlight effect.

16

A personality inventory that utilizes only those items that have been shown to differentiate particular groups of people is a(n) ________ test.

Empirically derived.

17

According to Freud, the unconscious is:

The thoughts, wishes, feelings, and memories, of which we are largely unaware.

18

The Oedipus complex is the term used by Freud to describe:

Boys' feelings of guilt and fear of punishment over their sexual desire for their mother.

19

The concept of personality most clearly embodies the notion of:

Behavioral consistency.

20

A collectivist culture is especially likely to emphasize the importance of:

Social harmony.

21

According to psychoanalytic theory, the part of the personality that strives for immediate gratification of basic drives is the:

Id.

22

In assessing candidates for spy missions during World War II, U.S. Army psychologists subjected them to simulated undercover conditions. This best illustrates the use of an assessment strategy favored by ________ theories.

Social-cognitive.

23

The tendency to accept favorable descriptions of one's personality that could really be applied to almost anyone is known as:

The Barnum effect.
The spotlight effect.
*Unconditional positive regard.

24

Carl Jung referred to a shared reservoir of memory traces from our species history as the:

Collective unconscious.

25

The defense mechanism in which self-justifying explanations replace the real, unconscious reasons for actions is:

Rationalization.

26

People's scores on a test of extraversion are likely to be most strongly correlated with the number of social conversations they initiate during the course of a single:

Month.

27

Psychoanalysis refers to the personality theory and therapeutic practices developed by:

Sigmund Freud.

28

Contemporary psychologists are LEAST likely to agree with Freud's belief that:

Conscience and gender identity form during the process of resolving the Oedipus complex.

29

Which theorist emphasized that an individual's personal growth is promoted by interactions with others who are genuine, accepting, and empathic?

Carl Rogers.

30

Two-year-old Damien frequently refuses to obey his parents because he derives immense pleasure from demonstrating his independence from their control. Freud would have suggested that Damien is going through the ________ stage of development.

Anal.

31

A psychotherapist instructs Dane to relax, close his eyes, and state aloud whatever thoughts come to mind no matter how trivial or absurd. The therapist is using a technique known as:

Free association.

32

Sheryl is very outgoing and fun-loving. She prefers to be around other people most of the time. She most clearly ranks high on the Big Five trait dimension known as:

Extraversion.

33

According to Freud, defense mechanisms are used by the:

Ego to prevent threatening impulses from being consciously recognized.

34

Studies of college students' conscientiousness revealed only a modest relationship between a student being conscientious on one occasion and being similarly conscientious on another occasion. This should make psychologists more cautious about overestimating the impact of ________ on behavior.

Personality traits.

35

Refusing to believe or even to perceive painful realities constitutes the defense mechanism known as:

Denial.

36

Being highly imaginative is most closely related to the Big Five trait dimension of:

Openness.

37

Psychodynamic theories emphasize that personality involves a dynamic interaction between:

Conscious and unconscious mental processes.

38

Personality is fruitfully studied at multiple levels of analysis because people are best understood as:

Biopsychosocial organisms.

39

Self-actualized people, as described by Maslow, are LEAST likely to be highly:

Conforming.

40

People living in a culture that promotes collectivism are more likely than those in individualist cultures to report experiencing:

Family loyalty.
Marital romance.

41

When 2-year-old Matthew was told he would get no dessert until he finished the food on his plate, he threw his plate on the floor in a temper tantrum. Freud would have suggested that Matthew was unable to resist the demands of his:

Id.

42

Freud emphasized that emotional healing is associated with the:

Recovery of repressed wishes.

43

According to Freud, the part of personality that represents our sense of right and wrong and our ideal standards is the:

Superego.

44

Self-efficacy refers to the experience of one's own:

Competence.

45

Which of the following have been criticized the most for offering concepts that are vague and subjective?

Humanistic theorists.

46

The concept of personality most clearly embodies the notion of:

Behavioral consistency.

47

Survivors' vivid memories of Nazi death camp experiences most clearly challenge Freud's concept of:

Repression.

48

Sheen is usually animated and talkative when he is with his girlfriend, but he is often quiet and reserved at home. He actively participates in many class discussions but frequently seems reluctant to talk with friends at the campus coffee shop. Sheen's behavior should make us more cautious about overemphasizing the impact of ________ on behavior.

Personality traits.


49

Four-year-old Timmy had not wet his bed for over a year. However, he started bed-wetting again soon after his sister was born. Timmy's behavior best illustrates:

Regression.

50

In contemporary psychology, the self is considered to be the:

Organizer of our thoughts, feelings, and actions.

51

The person-situation controversy involves a debate regarding the influence of ________ and ________ on behavior.

Environments; traits.

52

People who take personality inventories can lie in order to create a good impression. This best illustrates that the objectivity in scoring personality inventories does not guarantee that they:

Have validity.

53

The famous test introduced by Hermann Rorschach asks test-takers to respond to:

Meaningless inkblots.

54

If we are nervous about our personal appearance after adopting a new hairstyle, we are likely to ________ the extent to which others notice our nervousness and we are likely to ________ the extent to which they notice our new hairstyle.

Overestimate; overestimate.

55

Humanistic theorists have been criticized for:

Underestimating the inherent human capacity for destructive and evil behaviors.

56

Narcissism refers to excessive:

Self-love.

57

Regression is a defense mechanism that involves:

Retreating to a more infantile psychosexual stage.

58

No matter how long and hard Lerae studies, she always feels she hasn't studied as much as she should have. A Freudian psychologist would suggest that Lerae shows signs of a:

Strong id.
Strong superego.

59

Children who release unexpressed anger toward their parents by kicking the family pet illustrate the defense mechanism of:

Displacement.

60

The defense mechanism by which people disguise threatening impulses by attributing them to others is called:

Projection.

61

Factor analysis has been used to identify the most basic:

Personality traits.

62

A sense of personal self-worth is called:

Self-esteem.

63

Right-hemisphere activity enables a split-brain patient's left hand to carry out instructions the patient cannot verbalize. This best illustrates the importance of:

Unconscious thought.

64

The MMPI is an example of a(n):

Personality inventory.

65

The importance of unconscious conflicts and childhood experiences is of most central importance to:

Psychodynamic theories.

66

An individual's characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting is his or her:

Personality.

67

The tendency to accept favorable descriptions of one's personality that could really be applied to almost anyone is known as:

The Barnum effect.

68

A person who is careless and disorganized most clearly ranks low on the Big Five trait dimension of:

Conscientiousness.

69

Contemporary psychologists are most likely to consider ________ to be of pivotal importance to personality.

The sense of self.

70

Carl Rogers suggested that the ________ is a central feature of personality.

Self-concept.

71

People are especially likely to demonstrate an increase in ________ during their twenties.

Conscientiousness.

72

Frida was informed by a professional palm reader: “You generally communicate openly with others, but you have certain dark secrets that even your closest friends could never guess.” The fact that Frida was impressed by the palm reader's insight into her personality best illustrates:

The false consensus effect.
The Barnum effect.

73

Projective tests are most closely associated with ________ theories.

Psychodynamic.

74

According to Carl Rogers, people who are self-disclosing and open with their own feelings are demonstrating:

Genuineness.

75

The social-cognitive perspective emphasizes the interactive influences of traits and:

Situations.

76

The importance of unconscious conflicts and childhood experiences is of most central importance to:

Psychodynamic theories.

77

Free association is central to the process of:

Psychoanalysis.

78

Assessing an individual's standing on the Big Five has the advantage of providing a ________ personality description.

Comprehensive.

79

Carl Jung believed that the collective unconscious contains ________ derived from our species' universal experiences.

Archetypes.

80

Which perspective most clearly emphasizes that our personalities help create the situations to which we react?

The social-cognitive perspective.

81

By professional training, Freud was a:

Physician.

82

Freud suggested that the id's pleasure-seeking energies focus on distinct pleasure-sensitive areas of the body known as:

Erogenous zones.

83

Which psychologists are most likely to criticize standardized personality tests for failing to capture the unique subjective experience of the individual personality?

Humanistic theorists.

84

Athletes often attribute their losses to bad officiating. This best illustrates:

Self-serving bias.

85

The humanistic perspective emphasized the importance of:

Self-determination.

86

Self-efficacy refers to the experience of one's own:

Competence.

87

Compared with people in individualist cultures, those in collectivist cultures are:

More likely to display signs of humility and more likely to defer to others' wishes.

88

Mary enjoys socializing with friends and talking with them on her cell phone. Eileen prefers quiet times by herself when she can reflect on her own thoughts. The characteristics of Mary and Eileen indicate that each has a distinctive:

Personality.

89

Abraham Maslow suggested that those who fulfill their potential have satisfied the need for:

Self-actualization.

90

The major reason for criticism of the Rorschach test is that:

Only a few of the many Rorschach-derived scores have demonstrated validity.

91

Personality inventories are designed to assess several ________ at once.

Traits.

92

Larry studies diligently because he is haunted by an image of himself being unable to get a job after graduation. Larry's diligence best illustrates the motivational impact of:

Possible selves.

93

Which theorist emphasized that an individual's personal growth is promoted by interactions with others who are genuine, accepting, and empathic?

Carl Rogers.

94

Although Rolf frequently cheats on classroom tests, he erroneously believes that he cheats much less than most students. His mistaken belief best illustrates:

Self-serving bias.

95

Arjean's opinions are so dependent on what her friends think that she will swallow just about anything they tell her. Freud would have suggested that Arjean demonstrates a:

Fixation.
Free association.
Collective unconscious.

96

Carl Rogers would have suggested that many of the defense mechanisms described by Freud are used to minimize the perceived discrepancy between:

The actual self and the ideal self.

97

Freud became interested in unconscious personality dynamics when he noticed that certain patients' symptoms:

Made no neurological sense.

98

According to psychoanalytic theory, the part of the personality that strives for immediate gratification of basic drives is the:

Id.

99

In every one of the 53 countries surveyed, people typically expressed self-esteem above the midpoint of the most widely used self-esteem scale. This best illustrates the pervasiveness of:

Extraversion.
Self-serving bias.
*Free association.

100

Freud's concept of projection is most similar to what today's researchers call the:

False consensus effect.

101

People who take personality inventories can lie in order to create a good impression. This best illustrates that the objectivity in scoring personality inventories does not guarantee that they:

Have validity.