Exploring Psychology-Chapter 2 Flashcards Preview

Psychology 101-Summer 2015 Paula Frioli-Peters > Exploring Psychology-Chapter 2 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Exploring Psychology-Chapter 2 Deck (92):
1

A random error in gene replication is known as a:

Mutation.

2

Revolutionary psychologists are most likely to emphasize that human adaptiveness to a variety of different environments have contributed to human:

Reproductive success.

3

Addiction disorders may stem from malfunctioning reward centers in the ______.

Limbic System.

4

The ovaries in females and the testes in males are part of the ______.

Endocrine System.

5

Migraines are most closely linked with an:

Oversupply of glutamate.

6

Jose has just played a long, bruising football game but feels little fatigue or discomfort. his lack of pain is most likely caused by the release of:

Endorphins.

7

The cerebral cortex is the covering layer of the:

Cerebrum.

8

Hormones are the chemical messengers of the:

Endocrine system.

9

Which part of the limbic system plays an essential role in the processing of new memories?

Hippocampus.

10

Every non-genetic influence, from prenatal nutrition to the people and things around us, is an aspect of our ______.

Environment.

11

The knee-jerk reflex is controlled by interneurons in the ______.

Spinal cord.

12

Messages are transmitted from your spinal cord to muscles in your hands by the ______ nervous system.

Peripheral.

13

The association areas are located in the :

Cerebral cortex.

14

Neural stimulation that exceeds a threshold triggers:

An action potential.

15

The most extensive regions of the brain are involved in higher mental functions such as memory and reasoning are called:

Association areas.

16

An axon is:

The extension of a neuron that carries messages away from the cell body.

17

A simple, automatic, inborn response to a sensory stimulus is called a:

Reflex.

18

People have always responded positively to Alyssa's good looks that she has developed a socially confident and outgoing personality. This best illustrates the interaction of:

Nature and Nurture.

19

Physical exercise and exposure to stimulation environments are most likely to promote:

Neurogenesis.

20

The two major divisions of the nervous system are the central and the ______ nervous system.

Peripheral.

21

The part of the brain stem that controls heartbeat and breathing is called the:

Medulla.

22

The minimum level of stimulation required to trigger a neural impulse is called the:

Threshold.

23

An action potential is generated by the movement of:

Ions.

24

The principle of natural selection was first advanced by:

Charles Darwin.

25

Which brain structure relays information from the eyes to the visual cortex?

Thalmus.

26

A brain tumor caused extensive damage to Mr. Thorndike's hypothalmus. It is most likely that he may suffer a loss of:

Sexual motivation.

27

The function of dendrites is to:

Receive incoming signals from other neurons.

28

Which region of your brain stem plays a role in arousing you to a state of alertness when someone nearby mentions your name?

Reticular formation.

29

The auditory hallucinations experienced by people with schizophrenia are most closely linked with the activation of areas in their:

Temporal lobes.

30

Infant rats deprived of their mother's licking had more ______ that blocks access to the "on" switch for developing the brains stress hormone receptors.

Epigenetic Molecules.

31

An African butterfly that is green in the summer and brown in the fall thanks to temperature controlled genetic switch, best illustrates that genes are:

Self regulating.

32

Chromosomes are contained within:

Brain cells, sperm cells, and blood cells.

33

Dendrites are branching extensions of:

Neurons.

34

DNA is a complex:

Molecule.

35

Which limbic system structure regulates thirst and body temperature?

Hypothalmus.

36

To demonstrate that brain stimulation can make a rat violently aggressive, a neuroscientist should electrically stimulate the rat's:

Amaygdala.

37

A limbic system reward center located in front of the hypothalmus is called the:

Nucleus Accumbens.

38

The reticular formation is located in the:

Brain stem.

39

Acetylcholine is a neurotransmitter that:

Triggers muscle contractions.

40

If a professor accused you of cheating on a test, your adrenal glands would probably release ______ into your bloodstream.

Epinephrine.

41

The study of the links between physiology activity and psychological events is called?

Biological psychology.

42

The sensory cortex is most critical for our sense of:

Touch.

43

The occipital lobes are to ______ as the temporal lobes are to ______.

Seeing;hearing.

44

The part of the peripheral nervous system that controls the glands and the muscles of the internal organs is called the?

Autonomic nervous system.

45

Identical twins originate from the fertilization of:

A single egg cell by a single sperm cell.

46

Several organisms from a strain of bacteria infecting patients in a hospital setting inherited a mutation that increased their resistance to the hospitals' antibacterial drugs. Over time, the drug-resistant bacteria increasingly outnumbered the bacteria without the mutation. This best illustrates:

Natural selection.

47

Jason and Alex are biologically unrelated adolescents who were adopted as infants and raised together in the same home. For which of the following are Jason and Alex least likely to resemble each other any more than they resemble a genetically unrelated adolescent from another home in their neighborhood?

Extraversion.

48

The release of epinephrine into the blood stream is most likely to:

Increase blood sugar.

49

A segment of DNA capable of synthesizing a specific protein is called a:

Gene.

50

Unlike identical twins, fraternal twins are described as:

Dizygotic.

51

The sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems work together to keep you in a steady internal state called:

Homeostasis.

52

The somatic nervous system is a component of the ______ nervous system.

Peripheral.

53

The hypothalmus influences the ______ to send messages to the ______.

Pituitary: endocrine glands.

54

You come home one night to find a burglar in your home. Your heart starts racing and you begin to perspire. These physical reactions are triggered by the:

Sympathetic nervous system.

55

The biochemical units of heredity that make up the chromosomes are called:

Genes.

56

In addition to coordinating voluntary movement, the ______ enables nonverbal learning and memory.

Cerebellum.

57

According to evolutionary psychologists, our predisposistion to over consume fatty junk foods illustrates that we are biologically prepared to behave in ways that promoted ______ of our ancestors.

Reproductive success.

58

Central nervous system neurons that process information between sensory inputs and motor outputs are called?

Interneurons.

59

Which lobes of the brain receive the input that enables you to feel someone scratching your back?

Parietal.

60

Depending on environmental conditions, specific genes can be either:

Active or inactive.

61

Which division of the autonomic nervous system arouses the body and mobilizes its energy in stressful situations?

The sympathetic nervous system.

62

Endorphins are ______.

Neurotransmitters.

63

The parasympathetic nervous system:

Stimulates digestion and slows heartbeat.

64

The strengthening of synaptic connections facilitates the formation of:

Neural networks.

65

A synapse is a:

Junction between a sending neuron and a receiving neuron.

66

Optic nerves transmit information from the ______ visual fields of ______ to the left cerebral hemisphere.

Right; only the right eye.

67

The under supply of serotonin is most deeply linked to:

Depression.

68

The longest part of a motor neuron is likely to be the ______.

Axon.

69

After discovering that the shadows outside of his window were only the trees in his yard, Ralph's blood pressure decreased and his heartbeat slowed. These physical reactions were most directly regulated by his:

Parasympathetic nervous system.

70

Neurotransmitters are release from knob-like terminals at the end the ______.

Axon.

71

Information travels through axons that are bundled into the cables that we call:

Nerves.

72

The sequence of brain regions from oldest to newest is:

Brain stem, Limbic system, and Cerebral cortex.

73

Evolutionary psychology studies the evolution of behavior and the mind using:

Natural selection.

74

According to evolutionary psychologists, behaviors that promote reproductive success are likely to be:

Genetically predisposed.

75

Schizophrenia is most closely linked with excess receptor activity for the neurotransmitter ______.

Dopamine.

76

The master gland of the endocrine system is the ______ gland.

Pituitary.

77

A brief electrical charge that travels down the axon of a neuron is called the ______ ______.

Action potential.

78

Opiate drugs occupy the same receptor sites as ______.

Endorphines.

79

Neural stimulation that exceeds a threshold triggers ______.

Homeostasis.

80

Mathematical and reasoning capacities are likely to be inked with association areas in the ______ lobes.

Frontal.

81

To identify which of Lucy's brain areas was most active when she talked, neuroscientists gave her a temporarily radioactive form of glucose and a:

PET scan.

82

Which brain structure receives information from all senses except smell?

Thalmus.

83

In a clinical trial of brain implanted micro electrodes, a paralyzed 25 year old man constructed shapes on a computer screen by activating neurons in his:

Motor cortex.

84

Biological psychologist would be most interested in conducting research on the relationship between:

Not genetics and eye color. :(

85

the strengthening of synaptic connections facilitates the formation of:

Neural networks.

86

If a genetically based attraction to beautiful people contribute to survival, that trait will likely be passed on to subsequent generations. This best illustrates:

Natural selection.

87

The central nervous system consists of:

The brain and the spinal cord.

88

After he suffered a stroke....

Hypothalmus.

89

The motor cortex is located in the ______ lobe.

Frontal.

90

One function of glial cells is to:

Provide nutrients to neurons.

91

Mathematical and reasoning capacities are especially linked with association areas in the ______ lobes.

Frontal.

92

Although we may be unaware of our gender prejudices, they often influence the way we consciously perceive men and women. This best illustrates:

Dual processing.