Exploring Psychology- Chapter 10 Flashcards Preview

Psychology 101-Summer 2015 Paula Frioli-Peters > Exploring Psychology- Chapter 10 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Exploring Psychology- Chapter 10 Deck (94):
1

Which theory would be most helpful for explaining why people are motivated to watch horror movies?

Arousal theory.

2

In studies of both secondary school and university students, ________ has been a better predictor of school performance than intelligence scores have been.

Self-discipline.

3

The level of physiological arousal typically associated with peak performance tends to be:

Lower on tasks that are difficult.

4

Thaddeus will perform in a band concert at his school tomorrow. According to the Yerkes-Dodson law, his musical performance is likely to be ________ if his physiological arousal during the performance is ________.

Best; moderate.

5

Maureen is an introvert, who prefers staying in and reading a good book. Her friend Paula is an extravert, who would much rather spend her time partying. In terms of their ability to recognize facial expressions of emotion and express emotions,

Maureen is better at recognition and Paula is more expressive.

6

Feelings of hunger are decreased by the hormone:

PYY.

7

Which of the following suggestions would be the WORST advice for a dieter?

“Avoid eating during the day so you can enjoy a big meal in the evening.”

8

According to drive-reduction theory, a need refers to:

A physiological state that usually triggers motivational arousal.

9

Adventurous people who relish the pursuit of novel and intense experiences are said to be:

Sensation-seekers.

10

The lingering arousal associated with one emotional state can intensify a completely different state of emotion. This is called:

The spillover effect.

11

Most humans are genetically predisposed to:

Form close enduring relationships with fellow humans.

12

To avoid placing individual refugee families in communities where they are likely to feel socially isolated, U.S. policies today encourage:

Chain migration.

13

Exercising regularly and getting enough sleep contribute to a(n) ________ in metabolism and a(n) ________ in the settling point.

Increase; decrease.

14

A deep sense of well-being results when our need for relatedness is satisfied in balance with our psychological needs for competence and:

Autonomy.

15

Children who are neglected or who grow up in institutions without a sense of belonging are especially at risk for developing:

Insecure attachment.

16

According to the James-Lange theory, we experience emotion ________ we notice our physiological arousal. According to the Cannon-Bard theory, we experience emotion ________ we become physiologically aroused.

After; at the same time as.

17

The James-Lange theory of emotion states that:

To experience emotion is to be aware of our physiological responses to an emotion-arousing event.

18

Compared with men, women are ________ effective in discerning whether a male-female couple is a genuine romantic couple or a posed phony couple. They are ________ effective in discerning which of two people in a photo is the other's supervisor.

More; more.

19

Judy found that her party guests ate less from a very large plate of cupcakes that were cut in half rather than whole. This best illustrates:

Unit bias.

20

Grit can best be described as:

Passionate dedication to an ambitious goal.

21

Tranquilizing drugs that inhibit sympathetic nervous system activity often reduce people's subjective experience of intense anxiety. Which theory of emotion would have the greatest difficulty explaining this effect?

Cannon-Bard.

22

According to the two-factor theory, the two basic components of emotions are ________ and ________.

A cognitive label; physical arousal.

23

Those who constantly crave social acceptance while also remaining excessively vigilant to signs of possible social rejection most clearly display:

Insecure anxious attachment.

24

A polygraph examination of a suspected murderer included an assessment of his reaction to a detailed description of the victim's clothing and death wounds—details that would be known only to a person at the scene of the crime. The investigators were making use of the:

Guilty knowledge test.

25

After being physically aroused by his daily three-mile run, Martin finds that he experiences stronger resentment if his wife asks for an unexpected favor and more intense romantic feelings if she kisses him. Martin's experience can best be explained by the:

The two-factor theory.

26

For a hungry person, the consumption of food serves to:

Maintain homeostasis.

27

Researchers have discovered that cyber-ostracism elicits increased activity in the:

Anterior cingulate cortex.

28

The autonomic nervous system regulates the ________ that accompany(ies) different emotions.

Physiological arousal.

29

The basic components of emotion are:

Expressive behaviors, physiological arousal, and conscious experience.

30

Our need to belong is most clearly threatened by:

Ostracism.

31

Most participants reported feeling more happy than sad after rubberbands secured to the sides of their faces were stretched over the tops of their heads. Their reactions best illustrated:

The facial feedback effect.

32

Financial satisfaction is more strongly predictive of subjective well-being in poorer nations than in wealthy ones. This fact would most clearly be anticipated by:

Hierarchy of needs theory.

33

The guilty knowledge test is typically used to:

Assess a suspect's responses to details of a crime.

34

Victims of a famine will often eat unappetizing and nutritionally poor foods simply to relieve their constant hunger. Their behavior is best explained in terms of:

Drive-reduction theory.

35

Positive and negative environmental stimuli that motivate behavior are called:

Incentives.

36

According to the ________, you would be able to experience emotion even without sympathetic nervous system arousal.

Cannon-Bard theory.

37

Which basic emotion is facially expressed by brows drawn together and downward, eyes fixed, and mouth squarish?

Anger.

38

The idea that an emotion-arousing stimulus is simultaneously routed to the cortex and to the sympathetic nervous system is central to the:

Cannon-Bard theory.

39

According to the Cannon-Bard theory, the body's arousal is related to the sympathetic nervous system in the same way that subjective awareness of emotion is related to the:

Cortex.

40

Research on the nonverbal expression of emotion indicates that:

Introverts are better than extraverts at recognizing nonverbal expressions of emotion in others.

41

The spillover effect is best explained in terms of:

The two-factor theory.

42

The arousal theory of motivation would be most useful for understanding the aversive effects of:

Boredom.

43

According to Maslow, our need for ________ must be met before we are preoccupied with satisfying our need for ________.

Adequate clothing; self-esteem.

44

Imitating another person's facial expression of emotion is most likely to facilitate:

Empathy.

45

Food deprivation is to ________ as hunger is to ________.

Need; drive.

46

Which of the following is clearly NOT an example of an incentive?

Dehydration.

47

It is characteristic of bears to hibernate. This behavior is an example of:

An instinct.

48

An instinctive behavior is one that is:

Unlearned.

49

The World Health Organization identifies obesity as a high:

Body mass index.

50

Activation of the sympathetic nervous system:

Increases respiration and decreases salivation.

51

The two-factor theory of emotion places more emphasis on the importance of ________ than does the James-Lange theory.

Cognitive activity.

52

People are most likely to dislike the taste of ________ foods.

Novel.

53

Orexin is a ________ hormone secreted by the ________.

Hunger-arousing; hypothalamus

54

When encouraged to eat their fill of M&M's, people ate more when given a large rather than a small serving scoop. This most clearly reflects:

Unit bias.

55

Working with Walter Cannon, A. L. Washburn used a balloon to show that feelings of hunger are accompanied by:

Stomach contractions.

56

The set point is:

The specific body weight maintained automatically by most adults over long periods of time.

57

The most basic or lowest-level need in Maslow's hierarchy of human motives includes the need for:

Food and water.

58

People's dislike of novel foods best illustrates:

Neophobia.

59

Who suggested that “we feel sorry because we cry . . . afraid because we tremble”?

William James.

60

Jeff, who is 14, engages in rigorous tennis drills or competitive play at least four hours every day because he wants to master the sport and play on one of the best university teams in the country. His goal and behavior best illustrate the concept of:

Achievement motivation.

61

Research on the physiological basis of hunger has indicated that:

Hunger continues in humans whose cancerous stomachs have been removed.

62

A hormone that increases heart rate, blood pressure, and blood sugar levels in times of emergency is:

Epinephrine.

63

The recipes commonly used in countries with hot climates are more likely to include ________ than those in countries with colder climates.

Spices.

64

The autonomic nervous system regulates the ________ that accompany(ies) different emotions.

Physiological arousal.

65

Noticing that his heart was pounding and that his palms were sweaty while he was taking a difficult test, Harley concluded that he was “anxious.” Noticing that his heart was pounding and that his palms were sweaty when an attractive lady asked him to dance, Harley concluded that he was “falling in love.” The differing emotions experienced by Harley can best be explained by:

The two-factor theory.

66

Without any conscious effort, your ________ prepares you to fight or flee from dangerous situations.

Autonomic nervous system.

67

According to the Yerkes-Dodson law, test performance is typically ________ when physiological arousal is ________.

Best; moderate.

68

People's preferences for sweet tastes are ________, and their preferences for excessively salty tastes are ________.

Universal; learned.

69

Food deprivation is to ________ as hunger is to ________.

Need; drive.

70

Children who are neglected or who grow up in institutions without a sense of belonging are especially at risk for developing

Insecure attachment.

71

The parasympathetic nervous system is to the sympathetic nervous system as ________ is to ________.

Contraction of pupils; dilation of pupils.

72

Destruction of an appetite-suppressing area within the hypothalamus of a rat is most likely to:

Cause the rat to become extremely fat.

73

We experience hunger when the level of:

Glucose in our blood is low.

74

For purposes of lie detection, investigators have most commonly made use of a(n):

Polygraph.

75

Insulin, a hormone that influences appetite, is secreted by the:

Pancreas.

76

Cassandra's mother told her, “You know you are in love when your heart beats fast and you experience that unique trembling feeling inside.” This remark best illustrates the ________ theory of emotion.

James-Lange.

77

Surgeons removed a sizable part of Tom's stomach to prevent the spread of a cancerous tumor. Following a successful recovery, Tom's reduced appetite for food is most likely attributable to his body's reduced secretion of:

Ghrelin.

78

The right prefrontal cortex is more active than the left prefrontal cortex when people experience:

Disgust.

79

A dieter whose weight falls below his or her set point is likely to experience a(n):

Increase in hunger and a decrease in metabolic rate.

80

The 10-year rule for expert performance highlights the importance of:

Self-discipline.

81

For a thirsty person, drinking water serves to reduce:

A drive.

82

Motivation is defined by psychologists as:

A need or desire that energizes and directs behavior toward a goal.

83

Unlike the low-road brain pathway, the high road for emotional responses extends through the:

Cortex.

84

When shown a face with an evenly mixed expression of fear and anger, ________ children were much quicker than other children to see anger.

Physically abused.

85

People experience a mood shift when they switch from taking short shuffling steps to taking long strides and swinging their arms by their sides. This best illustrates:

The behavior feedback effect.

86

With sleep deprivation, the levels of leptin ________ and the levels of ghrelin ________.

Fall; rise.

87

New research has linked women's obesity to their risk of late-life:

Cognitive decline.

88

Those who engage in excess Internet socializing during work hours should be reminded that electronic message alerts, Facebook postings, and Internet pop-ups hijack:

Attention.

89

Positive and negative environmental stimuli that motivate behavior are called:

Incentives.

90

The tendency of facial muscle states to trigger corresponding feelings such as fear or happiness is called:

The facial feedback effect.

91

As her professor distributed the mathematics test to the class, Blair's heart started to pound and her palms began to sweat. These physiological reactions were activated by her ________ nervous system.

Sympathetic.

92

A psychologist would have the greatest difficulty differentiating between anger and fear by monitoring the ________ associated with each.

Heart rates.

93

Homeostasis, which is the goal of drive reduction, is defined as:

The body's tendency to maintain a constant internal state.

94

In their dispute over the role of cognition in emotion, both Zajonc and Lazarus agree that:

Some emotional reactions involve no conscious thinking.