Exploring Psychology-Chapter 4 Flashcards Preview

Psychology 101-Summer 2015 Paula Frioli-Peters > Exploring Psychology-Chapter 4 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Exploring Psychology-Chapter 4 Deck (107):
1

Studies of monkeys raised with artificial mothers suggest that mother-infant emotional bonds result primarily from mothers providing infants with:

Body Contact.

2

One study found that English-speaking adults could relearn subtle sound contrasts in the Hindi or Zulu they had spoken as children even though they had no ________ the Hindi or Zulu language they had once spoken.

Conscious memory of

3

A critical period is a phase during which:

Exposure to certain experiences is needed for proper development.

4

Mr. Hersch triggered a rooting reflex in his infant son by touching him on the:

Cheek.

5

During adolescence, maturation of the ________ lags behind maturation of the ________.

Frontal;Limbic.

6

Menopause refers to:

The cessation of menstruation.

7

Which of the following is an example of imprinting?

A duckling demonstrates attachment to a bouncing ball.

8

French toddlers preferred playing with chamomile-scented toys if:

Their mothers had once used a skin balm with a chamomile scent.

9

When children grow up and leave home, parents most frequently report feeling:

Happy.

10

Some mothers feed their infants when they show signs of hunger, whereas others fail to respond predictably to their infants' demands for food. These different maternal feeding practices are most likely to contribute to differences in infant:

Attachment.

11

In a pleasant but unfamiliar setting, infants with a secure maternal attachment are most likely to:

Use their mothers as a base from which to explore the new surroundings.

12

According to Piaget, during the formal operational stage people begin to:

Reason abstractly.

13

The symptoms of fetal alcohol syndrome are most likely to include:

Brain abnormalities.

14

Mr. and Mrs. Batson can't wait to begin toilet training their year-old daughter. The Batsons most clearly need to be informed about the importance of:

Maturation.

15

According to Piaget, a person first comprehends that division is the reverse of multiplication during the ________ stage.

Concrete operational.

16

If research suggested that a pregnant mother's use of an artificial sweetener caused harm to the fetus, the artificial sweetener would be considered a:

Teratogen.

17

As teens mature, the growth of myelin facilitates:

Communication between the frontal lobes and other brain regions.

18

Human sperm cells ________ than egg cells.

Are smaller.

19

The Harlows' infant monkeys used an artificial cloth mother as a secure base for:

Exploration.

20

Parents who are demanding and yet sensitively responsive to their children are said to be:

Authoritative.

21

When adults of varying ages were tested for their memory of a recently learned list of 24 words, the older adults demonstrated:

A decline in recall but not in recognition.

22

One variation of autism spectrum disorder is characterized by normal intelligence, often accompanied by exceptional skill in a particular area, but deficient social and communication skills. This disorder is called:

Asperger syndrome.

23

Maturation refers to:

Biological growth processes that are relatively uninfluenced by experience.

24

Babies are born with several reflexes for getting food. One of these is to:

Open the mouth in search of a nipple when touched on the cheek.

25

Brad and Jane exercise very little control over their two young children, and they usually allow them to do whatever they want. Psychologists would characterize Brad and Jane as ________ parents.

Permissive.

26

Sixteen-year-old Brenda questions her parents' values but does not fully accept her friends' standards either. Her confusion about what she really wants and values in life suggests that Brenda is struggling with the problem of:

Identity.

27

Aaron cried when his mother left him in the infant nursery at church, and he was not reassured or comforted by her return a short while later. Aaron showed signs of:

Insecure attachment.

28

The best predictor of a couple's marital satisfaction is the:

Ratio of their positive to negative interactions with each other.

29

Many researchers believe that adult styles of romantic love correspond with childhood patterns of:

Attachment.

30

According to Piaget, children come to understand that the volume of a substance remains constant despite changes in its shape during the ________ stage.

Concrete Operational.

31

Difficult babies with an intense and highly reactive temperament tend to be:

Irritable and unpredictable.

32

To assess attachment differences among infants, Mary Ainsworth placed them in a laboratory setting called a:

Strange situation.

33

According to Piaget, schemas are:

People's conceptual frameworks for understanding their experiences.

34

Adolescents' sense of what's fair is most likely to change from simple equality to what's proportional to merit when they achieve:

Formal operations.

35

EDITED - Premature infants who are regularly touched and massaged are more likely than their unstimulated counterparts to show signs of:

Develop faster neurologically and gain weight more rapidly.

36

Avoiding physical punishment is to ________ morality as respecting the laws of society is to ________ morality.

Preconventional; conventional.

37

As men advance through middle adulthood they experience a gradual decline in:

Testosterone level.
Sperm count.
Ejaculation speed.
All of these things.

38

Cognition refers to:

The mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating.

39

Which of the following represents the correct order of Piaget's stages of cognitive development?

Sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, formal operational.

40

A preference for our mother's voice over our father's voice has been detected as early as:

Immediately after birth.

41

Erikson suggested that the adolescent search for identity is followed by a developing capacity for:

Intimacy.

42

Nature is to nurture as ________ is to ________.

Tempermant;Responsive Parenting.

43

Object permanence is the understanding that:

Things continue to exist even when they are not perceived.

44

One of the most consistently damaging teratogens is:

Alcohol.

45

EDITED - Evidence that easy, relaxed infants develop secure attachments more readily than difficult, emotionally intense babies would illustrate the importance of:

Temperament in the development of attachment.

46

Authoritative parents are likely to have children who:

Have high self-esteem and are self-reliant.

47

Lacking any exposure to language before adolescence, a person will never master any language due to the ________ of unemployed neural connections.

Pruning.

48

When people with autism watch another person's hand movements, they display less than normal:

Mirroring activity.

49

The period of sexual maturation during which a person becomes capable of reproducing is called:

Puberty.

50

Harlow observed that most monkeys raised in total isolation:

Were incapable of mating upon reaching sexual maturity.

51

When golden hamsters were repeatedly threatened and attacked while young, they suffered long-term changes in:

Brain chemistry.

52

Little Karen will approach and play with unfamiliar animals only if her mother first reassures her that it is safe to do so. This best illustrates the adaptive value of:

Attachment.

53

Adolescence extends from:

The beginnings of sexual maturity to independent adulthood.

54

Chloe can clearly sense when her sister's teasing is intended to be friendly fun or a hostile put-down. This best illustrates that Chloe has developed a(n):

Theory of mind.

55

Erik Erikson suggested that the major psychosocial task of middle adulthood was to discover a sense of contributing to the world by being productive. According to Erikson, those who do this effectively demonstrate:

Generativity.

56

Persistent exclusion from peer social relationships is most likely to increase teens' risk for:

Depression.

57

Alcohol may cause fetal damage by leaving chemical marks on DNA that switch genes abnormally on or off. This best illustrates.

An epigenetic effect.

58

According to Piaget, the ability to think logically about events first develops during the ________ stage.

Concrete operational.

59

A failure to practice important motor skills can result in a loss of agility because unused neural connections :

Are pruned.

60

The first time that 4-year-old Sarah saw her older brother play a flute, she thought it was simply a large whistle. Sarah's initial understanding of the flute best illustrates the process of:

Assimilitation.

61

From ages 3 to 6, the brain's neural networks are sprouting most rapidly in the:

Frontal Lobes.

62

Which of the following factors contributes most positively to the development of secure attachment between human infants and their mothers?

Responsive parenting.

63

According to Piaget, accommodation refers to:

Adjusting current schemas to make sense of new experiences.

64

A developmental stage between adolescent dependence and responsible adulthood is called:

Emerging Adulthood.

65

In teen calls to hotline counseling services, the most discussed topic is:

Peer relationships.

66

According to Piaget, egocentrism refers to:

The difficulty perceiving things from another person's point of view.

67

In a British study following over 7000 people from birth to adulthood, those individuals whose fathers were most involved in parenting tended to demonstrate greater:

Academic achievement.

68

If warmly supportive parents are especially likely to have children with high self-esteem, this would most clearly indicate that:

Warmly supportive parenting and children's self-esteem are correlated.

69

The selective loss of unused connections among brain cells is called:

Pruning.

70

Lilianne is beginning to develop a fear of strangers and will reach for her mother when she sees someone who is unfamiliar. It is likely that Lilianne has also just:

Developed a sense of object permanence.

71

A developmental stage between adolescent dependence and responsible adulthood is called:

Emerging adulthood.

72

The ability to think logically about hypothetical situations is indicative of the ________ stage of development.

Formal operational.

73

Children's sense that their parents are trustworthy and dependable is most indicative of:

Secure attachment.

74

Our earliest conscious memories seldom predate our third birthday. This best illustrates:

Infantile amnesia.

75

Interpreting new experiences in terms of existing schemas is called:

Assimilation.

76

The heart begins to beat during the ________ period of prenatal development.

Embryonic.

77

A child's temperament is likely to be:

Stable over time.

78

Mr. Lambers refuses to pay income taxes because his conscience will not allow him to support a government that spends billions of dollars on military weapons. Mr. Lambers' reasoning best illustrates Kohlberg's ________ stage.

Postconventional.

79

Nageeb thought all nurses were young females until a middle-aged male nurse took care of him. Nageeb's altered conception of a “nurse” illustrates the process of:

Accommodation.

80

Regis thinks it's wrong to drive over the speed limit simply because he might get punished for doing so. He is demonstrating Kohlberg's ________ stage of morality.

Preconventional.

81

The placenta develops from the outer cells of the:

Zygote.

82

A person's characteristic emotional reactivity and intensity is called their:

Temperament.

83

Learning to delay gratification promotes:

Moral action.

84

Infant motor development is typically characterized by individual differences in ________ of the major developmental milestones.

The age-related timing but not the sequence.

85

Horace, the youngest child of a high school athletic director, was able to roll over at 3 months, crawl at 6 months, and walk at 12 months. This ordered sequence of motor development was largely due to:

Maturation.

86

During which of Piaget's stages does a person develop an awareness that things continue to exist even when they are not perceived?

Sensorimotor.

87

One of the most consistently damaging teratogens is:

Alcohol.

88

Infants develop a fear of strangers after about 8 months of age because they can't assimilate unfamiliar faces into their:

Schemas.

89

Physical exercise in later life promotes ________ in the hippocampus.

The process of neurogenesis

90

Marlys is a sensitive, responsive parent who consistently satisfies the needs of Sara, her infant daughter. According to Erikson, Sara is likely to:

Form a lifelong attitude of basic trust toward the world.

91

Five-year-olds who were surprised to discover that a Band-Aids box contained pencils were able to anticipate their friend's false belief about the contents of the box. This best illustrates that the children had developed a:

Theory of mind.

92

According to Erikson, trust is to infancy as identity is to:

Adolescence.

93

In considering day-care opportunities for their four children, Mr. and Mrs. Taylor should be most concerned about whether the experience will influence:

Secure attachment in their 6-month-old daughter, Julia.

94

Which of the following factors contributes most positively to the development of secure attachment between human infants and their mothers?

Responsive parenting.

95

Edith abuses both her 3-year-old and 1-year-old daughters. Her behavior is most likely related to a lack of:

An early and secure attachment to her own parents.

96

Habituation refers to the:

Decreasing responsiveness to a stimulus to which one is repeatedly exposed.

97

When placed between a gauze breast pad from their nursing mother's bra and one from another nursing mother, week-old nursing babies are likely to:

Turn their head toward the smell of their mother's pad.

98

Compared with environmentally impoverished rats, those rats housed in enriched environments experienced a dramatic increase in the number of their:

Synapses.

99

Developmental psychologists study physical, cognitive, and ________ changes throughout the human life span.

Social.

100

The placenta develops from the outer cells of the:

Zygote.

101

Learning to delay gratification promotes:

Moral action.

102

Many researchers believe that adult styles of romantic love correspond with childhood patterns of:

Attachment.

103

During which of Piaget's stages does a person develop an awareness that things continue to exist even when they are not perceived?

Sensorimotor.

104

During the course of successful prenatal development, a human organism begins as a(n):

Zygote and finally develops into a fetus.

105

The ability to think logically about hypothetical situations is indicative of the ________ stage of development.

Formal operational.

106

During which of Piaget's stages does a person develop an awareness that things continue to exist even when they are not perceived?

Sensorimotor.

107

Adolescents are most likely to be influenced by their parents with respect to ________, and they are most likely to be influenced by their peers with respect to ________.

Career choices; clothing preferences.