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Flashcards in Fabrics And Fibres Deck (54):
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Fibres

Fine hair-like structures and is used to make yarn

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Continuous filaments

Very long fibres

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Staple fibres

Short fibres

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Yarn

Twisted fibres used to make fabrics

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Classifying fibres

Natural fibres and manufactured fibres

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Natural fibres and examples

Come from nature they are plant sources or animal sources e.g cotton, wool, silk, linen

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Manufactured fibres and examples

Created from a mixture of raw materials e.g synthetic and regenerated fibres

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Cotton

It grows in hot moist climates, mainly produced in China, USA and India most common used natural fibre

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Production of cotton

The bolls are picked by hand or machine
The fibres are separated from the seeds
Fibres are pressed into bales
Cotton is graded according to length
Fibres are combed and spun into yarn

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Desirable properties of cotton (5)

Absorbent
Doesn't cling
Cool
Strong
Easy to wash
Easy to dye and bleach

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Undesirable properties of cotton

Creases
Not stretchy
Burns easily
Shrinks
Damaged by mildew

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Fabrics of cotton (5)

Flannelette Muslim
Towelling. Denim
Poplin
Lawn
Cotton
Gingham

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Uses of cotton (7)

Clothes. Jackets
Jeans. Trousers
Sweatshirts. Dresses
Shirts. Baby clothes
T-shirts. Nightwear
Underwear. Towels

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Linen

Grows from flax plant, from cool damp climates e.gIreland, Belgium, Russia, France

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Production of linen

Flax grows a metre high stems pulled by the root
The stems are soaked for weeks (retting)
Fibres are separated from the woody parts
Fibres are combed and spun into yarn
Long fibres are produced in fine yarn
Short fobres are made in coarse yarn

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Desirable properties of linen (5)

Absorbent
Cool
Strong
Hardwearing
Easily washed
Doesn't attract dirt easily

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Undesirable properties of linen

Creases easily
Burns easily
Shrinks
Damaged by mildew
Difficult to dye

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Fabrics of linen

Damask
Canvas
Cambric

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Uses of linen

Suits, dresses, shirts, tablecloths, napkins

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Wool

Most common animal fibre, soft hair from sheep, produced in UK, New Zealand, USA, Ireland

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Production of wool

fleece is removed from the sheep,
Graded by fineness, colour, length,
It's cleanded and combed
Spun and into yarn

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Desirable properties of wool

Warm, soft, absorbent, stretchy, resilient

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Undesirable properties of wool(5)

Shrinks, feels itchy, pills, easily scorched, damaged by moths, doesn't dry easily,

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Fabrics of wool(5)

Flannel, tweed, jersey, serge, velour, gabardine, crêpe

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Silk

Made since ancient times, made by silkworms, made in Japan, China,

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Production of silk

Made by silkworms, silkmoths lay eggs,
new worms eat leaves from mulberry trees
They spin cocoons of silk, heated and soaked and threads removed
Threads are wound onto reels and spun into thicker yarn

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Desirable properties of silk (5)

Absorbent, lightweight yet warm, strong, smooth, drapes well, crease resistance

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Undesirable properties of silk

Flammables, damaged by careless handling, damaged by moths, damaged by chemicals

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Uses of wool

Jumpers, coats, blankets, rugs, suits, upholstered

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Fabrics of silk

Wild silk, slub silk, chiffon, satin, taffeta, organza

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Uses of silk

Shirts, scarves, curtains, cushions, ties, evening wear

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Regenerated fibres

This contains cellulose from plants such as wood, seawood and cotton waste

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Production of regenerated fibres

The cellulose from plants is pulped and mixed from chemicals
It's made into a thick liquid
It's forced through a spinneret to make yarn
Yarn is twisted and cut

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Desirable properties of regenerated fibres

Absorbent
Easy to dye
Cool

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Undesirable properties of regenerated fibres

Crease easily not very durable

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Fabrics of regenerated fibres

Viscose
Acetate
Tencel

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Uses of regenerated fibres

Lightweight clothes
Tablecloths
Napkins
Curtains

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Production of synthetic fibres

Chemicals from petroleum are mixed to produce thick liquid
The liquid is forced through a spinneret
Continuos filaments make smooth yarn
Fibres can be cut into staple fibres

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Desirable properties of synthetic fibres

Strong
Elastic
Durable
Stretchy
Crease resistance

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Undesirable properties of synthetic fibres

Doesn't absorb moisture
Clingy
Flammable
Cause static

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Fabrics of synthetic fibres

Nylon
Polyester
PVC
Acrylic(dralon)
Elastane(lycra)

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Uses of synthetic fibres

Nylon:tights
Polyester:shirts
Acrylic:jumper
PVC:handbags
Elastane:swimwear

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Blended fabrics

To make more desirable properties e.g polycottone

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Spinning yarn

The process of of twisting fibres into yarn, it gives strength

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Weaving

The interlacing of yarns at the right angles to each other tweed and denim are examples

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The warp

The strong thread, runs in the direction of the length of the fabric

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The weft

The weaker thread, runs in the direction of the width of the fabric

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The straight grain

The direction of the warp

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The bias

The diagonal line of a fabric

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Knitting

Linking together loops of yarn into knots called stiches knitted products are jumpers, sock, tights, tracksuit and pants

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Advantages of knitted fabrics

Stretchy, comfortable, warm, crease resistance

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Non-woven fabrics or bonded fabrics

They are made directly from fibres without being made into yarn, fobres are held together by using adhesive, heat, pressure or stitching

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Examples of non woven fabrics

Disposable cloths, masks, snooker tables, tennis balls and nappies

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Advantages of non woven fabrics

Does not fray, cheap to produce, keeps their shape well, economical to use beacuse there is no straight grain