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Flashcards in food and nutrition Deck (41)
0

Functions of food

helps the body to grow
provides body with energy and warmth
protects the body against disease.

1

factors affecting food choces

lifestyle
nutritional value
cost
culture
religion
availability
foods in season
advertising
personal likes and dislikes

2

nutrient

chemical in food that nourishes the body, Eg protein

3

composition

what the nutrient is made up of

4

source

a food that contains the nutrient

5

function

what it does in the body

6

rda

amount of the nutrient we should eat each day

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deficiency disease

ill effects caused by lack of the nutrient

8

six types of nutrients

Macronutrients: Proteins, fats, carbohydrates
micronutrients: vitamins, minerals, water.

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composition of protein

proteins are made up of amino acids,
Amino acids are small units that are attached by together like beads on a necklace.
Contains elements carbon, oxygen, hydrogen and nitrogen. Nitrogen is needed for growth.

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classifications of protein + sources

HBV: Soya, meat, fight, eggs, milk/dairy.
LBV: Peas, beans, lentils, nuts, whole cereals.

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functions of protein

It helps the body cells to grow.
it helps the body repair damaged cells.
It forms hormones and enzymes,
protein is used for heat and energy when there is no energy left.

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protein RDA

Adults need a gram of protein for every kg they weigh.
Eg if a person weighs 50g, they need 50g of protein per day.

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FAT COMPOSITION

fats are made from fatty acids and glycerol,
Each glycerol is attached to three fatty cpacids.
Glycerol and fatty acids contain the elements carboh, hydrogen and oxygen.

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Classification of fats + sources

saturated fats : butter meat milk cheese eggs

unsaturated fats: sunflower oil olive oil rapeseed oil nuts seeds

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functions of fat

fats provide heat and energy
contains fat-soluble vitamins A D E and K
Layer of fat under the skin insulates the body
gives a feeling of fullness and delays hunger

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carbohydrates composition

made up of simple sugars eg glucose.
Simple sugars are joined together to form starch.
Contains elements carbon, hydrogen and oxygen.

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classifications of carbohydrates + sources

sugars: Fruit jam ice cream honey cakes

starches: cereals potatoes root veg pulse veg

dietary fibre: fruit veg brown rice brown bread

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functions of carbohydrates

provides heat and energy
fibre helps the movement of food through the body
fibre gives a feeling of fullness

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fibre

fibre absorbs water and becomes bulky in the intestine. This prevents bowel diseases and constipation.

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RDA of carbohydrates

30g

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Vitamins classifications

Water soluble: b-group vitamins, vitamin c

Fat soluble: vitamins A,D,E and K.

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B group vitamins functions, sources and deficiency dieases

Function:
Release of energy from food
healthy nerves
prevents neural tube defects in unborn babies (spina bifida)

Sources:
Red meat
fish
milk
cheese
fortified breakfast cereal

Deficiency disease:
risk of neural tube defects in babies
beri-beri (nerves)
pellagra

23

Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) functions, sources, deficiency diseases.

Function:
General health,
helps body absorb iron
healthy skin and gums

Sources:
Blackcurrants
Oranges
Peppers
Broccoli

Deficiency diseases:
higher risk of infection

24

Vitamin A functions, sources, deficiency

function:
healthy eyes
healthy skin

sources
oily fish
offal
eggs

deficiency diseases:
night blindness
slow growth

25

vitamin D functions, sources and deficiency

Function
Healthy bones and teeth
Helps to absorb calcium

Sources
Oily fish
eggs
fortified milk

Deficiency dieases:
Rickets in children, osteoporosis in adults.

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vitamin E functions, sources and deficiency

functions:
an antioxidant
healthy red blood cells

Sources:
nuts
seeds
green veg
cereals

Deficiency disease:
anaemia in newborn babies

27

Vitamin K function, sources, deficiency

function:
helps blood to clot

Sources:
Nuts
seeds
eggs
green veg
cereals

Deficiency disease:
Blood clotting problems.

28

Hypervitaminosis

Hypervitaminosus is caused by an excess of Vitamins A or D, which is harmful to the body.

29

Important minerals

calcium
iron
sodium
phosphorus
fluroine
iodine

30

calcium function, deficiency, source, RDA

Function:
Calcium is needed for strong bones and teeth

Deficiency:
Rickets in children, Osteoporosis in adults

Source:
Milk, cheese, yogurt, tinned fish

RDA:
1200mg

31

iron Function, deficiency, sources, RDA

Function:
Helps to make healthy red blood cells, and is needed to make haemoglobin which transports oxygen around the body.

Deficiency:
Anaemia

Sources:
Red meat, liver, fortified breakfast cereals.

Rda:
14mg

32

what is needed to help absorb iron?

vitamin C

33

Fluorine function, source, deficiency

Function:
healthy teeth

source:
Water, fish

deficiency:
tooth decay

34

phosphorus function, source, deficiency

function:
combines with calcium for strong bones and teeth.

Source:
meat, fish, poultry, eggs, milk

deficiency:
rare, as it is found in so many foods

35

sodium function, source, deficiency

function:
Controls water balance in body

Source:
Table salt, bacon, butter, snack foods

Deficiency:
Muscle cramps

36

RDA of sodium

6g

37

Water RDA, deficiency, source, function

RDA: 2-2.5 litres

Sources:
Bottled/tap water, milk, tea

Function:
Satisfies thridy
helps with digestion
helps to remove waste from the body
part of all bodily fluids

38

factors affecting energy requirements

size
age
activity
climate
gender
pregnancy

39

energy balance

Energy balance means that the energy input should be equal to the energy output.

40

empty kilocalories

Foods that provide energy/sugar but no other nutrients provide empty kilocalories.