Flashcards in food and nutrition Deck (41)
Functions of food
helps the body to grow
provides body with energy and warmth
protects the body against disease.
factors affecting food choces
foods in season
personal likes and dislikes
chemical in food that nourishes the body, Eg protein
what the nutrient is made up of
a food that contains the nutrient
what it does in the body
amount of the nutrient we should eat each day
ill effects caused by lack of the nutrient
six types of nutrients
Macronutrients: Proteins, fats, carbohydrates
micronutrients: vitamins, minerals, water.
composition of protein
proteins are made up of amino acids,
Amino acids are small units that are attached by together like beads on a necklace.
Contains elements carbon, oxygen, hydrogen and nitrogen. Nitrogen is needed for growth.
classifications of protein + sources
HBV: Soya, meat, fight, eggs, milk/dairy.
LBV: Peas, beans, lentils, nuts, whole cereals.
functions of protein
It helps the body cells to grow.
it helps the body repair damaged cells.
It forms hormones and enzymes,
protein is used for heat and energy when there is no energy left.
Adults need a gram of protein for every kg they weigh.
Eg if a person weighs 50g, they need 50g of protein per day.
fats are made from fatty acids and glycerol,
Each glycerol is attached to three fatty cpacids.
Glycerol and fatty acids contain the elements carboh, hydrogen and oxygen.
Classification of fats + sources
saturated fats : butter meat milk cheese eggs
unsaturated fats: sunflower oil olive oil rapeseed oil nuts seeds
functions of fat
fats provide heat and energy
contains fat-soluble vitamins A D E and K
Layer of fat under the skin insulates the body
gives a feeling of fullness and delays hunger
made up of simple sugars eg glucose.
Simple sugars are joined together to form starch.
Contains elements carbon, hydrogen and oxygen.
classifications of carbohydrates + sources
sugars: Fruit jam ice cream honey cakes
starches: cereals potatoes root veg pulse veg
dietary fibre: fruit veg brown rice brown bread
functions of carbohydrates
provides heat and energy
fibre helps the movement of food through the body
fibre gives a feeling of fullness
fibre absorbs water and becomes bulky in the intestine. This prevents bowel diseases and constipation.
RDA of carbohydrates
Water soluble: b-group vitamins, vitamin c
Fat soluble: vitamins A,D,E and K.
B group vitamins functions, sources and deficiency dieases
Release of energy from food
prevents neural tube defects in unborn babies (spina bifida)
fortified breakfast cereal
risk of neural tube defects in babies
Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) functions, sources, deficiency diseases.
helps body absorb iron
healthy skin and gums
higher risk of infection
Vitamin A functions, sources, deficiency
vitamin D functions, sources and deficiency
Healthy bones and teeth
Helps to absorb calcium
Rickets in children, osteoporosis in adults.
vitamin E functions, sources and deficiency
healthy red blood cells
anaemia in newborn babies
Vitamin K function, sources, deficiency
helps blood to clot
Blood clotting problems.
Hypervitaminosus is caused by an excess of Vitamins A or D, which is harmful to the body.
calcium function, deficiency, source, RDA
Calcium is needed for strong bones and teeth
Rickets in children, Osteoporosis in adults
Milk, cheese, yogurt, tinned fish
iron Function, deficiency, sources, RDA
Helps to make healthy red blood cells, and is needed to make haemoglobin which transports oxygen around the body.
Red meat, liver, fortified breakfast cereals.
what is needed to help absorb iron?
Fluorine function, source, deficiency
phosphorus function, source, deficiency
combines with calcium for strong bones and teeth.
meat, fish, poultry, eggs, milk
rare, as it is found in so many foods
sodium function, source, deficiency
Controls water balance in body
Table salt, bacon, butter, snack foods
RDA of sodium
Water RDA, deficiency, source, function
RDA: 2-2.5 litres
Bottled/tap water, milk, tea
helps with digestion
helps to remove waste from the body
part of all bodily fluids
factors affecting energy requirements
Energy balance means that the energy input should be equal to the energy output.