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Fibres

Fibres are fine, hair-like structures.

They are used to make yarn and yarn is used to make fabric.

Fabric --> Yarn --> Fabric --> Garment

1

Natural fibres

Plant:
Cotton
Linen

Animal:
Wool
Silk

2

Manufactured fibres

Regenerated:
Viscose
Acetate

Synthetic:
Polyester
Acrylic

3

Production of cotton

-Comes from boll of cotton plant

-Bolls are picked by hand/machine

-Fibres are separated from seeds (ginning)

-Fibres pressed into bales.

-Cotton is graded

-Fibres combined + spun into yarn.

4

Properties of cotton

Desirable:
Absorbent
Strong
Easy to wash and dry

Undesirable:
Not very stretchy
Burns easily
Damaged by mildew

5

Fabrics & uses for cotton

Fabrics:
Towelling
Cotton
Denim

Uses:
Jeans
Sweatshirts
Towels
Sheets

6

Where does linen come from

the flax plant

7

Production of linen

Stems pulled up by their roots

stems are left to soak for several weeks to rot (retting)

fibres are separated

fibres are combined & spun into yarn

long fibres --> fine yarn
short fibres --> coarse yarn

8

properties of linen

desirable:
absorbent
strong
hardwearing

undesirable:
shrinks
burns easily
damaged by mildew

9

fabrics & uses for linen

fabrics:
canvas
cambric
uses:
suits
dresses
curtains

10

Production of wool

-fleece (hair) is removed from sheep

-it is graded

-cleaned & combed (carding)

-spun into yarn

11

properties of wool

desirable:
warm
soft
absorbent

undesirable:
feels itchy beside skin
easily scorched, damaged by moths
does not dry easily

12

fabrics and uses of wool

fabrics:
flannel
tweed

uses:
jumpers
blankets

13

Production of silk

-Produced from silkworm

-Silk moth lays eggs, new worms feed on leaves of mulberry tree

-Worms spin cocoons of silk

-Cocoons are heated, soeaked. Threads are removed.

-Threads are wound onto reeks.

-The threads are spun into yarn.

14

properties of silk

desirable:
absorbent
strong
smooth

undesirable:
flammable
damaged by moths
damages by chemicals

15

fabrics and uses for silk

fabrics:
chiffon
satin
taffeta

uses:
shirts
curtains

16

Two types of manufactured fibres

regenerated

synthetic

17

what do regenerated fibres contain?

Regenerated fibres contain cellulose because they come from plants.

-Wood, seaweed and cotton waste are crushed and used to make fibres.

18

Production of regenerated fibres

-cellulose and cotton waste is pulped and mixed with chemicals.

-it is made into a thick liquid

-the liquid is forced through tiny holes in a spinneret (like a shower head) to make yarn

-Yarn is twisted and cut

19

Properties of regenerated fabrics

desirable:
absorbent
easy to dye
cool

undesirable:
crease easily
not very
durable

20

fabrics and uses for regenerated fabrics

fabrics:
viscose

uses:
lightweight clothes
tablecloths
napkins

21

Synthetic fibres

Purely man-made

22

Production of synthetic fibres

-chemicals from petroleum are mixed to produce a thick liquid.

-The liquid is forced through tiny holes in a spinneret

-Long uniform fibres (continuous filaments) are twisted together to make smooth yarn.

-Fibres can be cut into short (staple) fibres

23

properties of synthetic fabrics

desirable:
strong
elastic
durable

undesirable:
does not absorb moisture
clingy
causes static

24

fabrics and uses for synthetic fibres

fabrics:
nylon
polyester
acrylic

uses:
-nylon-
tights
linings
waterproof clothes

25

denier

denier is used to describe the thickness of manufactured fibres.
The lower the number, the finer the yarn.

26

Blended fabrics

various fabrics can be combined to create fabrics with many desirable properties eg. polycotton

27

fabric construction

spinning yarn
weaving
straight
grain
bias
knitting
non-woven fabrics

28

spinning yarn

spinning is the process of twisting fibres into yarn.
loose twist = soft, bulky yarn
tight twist = finer, stronger yarn

29

weaving

weaving is the interlacing of yarns at right angles to each other.
weaving is done on a loom.

30

warp

the warp, or strong thread, runs in the direction of the length of the fabric.

31

weft

the weft, or weaker thread, runs in the direction of the width of the fabric.

32

selvage

the side of the fabric running in the direction of the warp threads.
the selvage stops sides fraying.

33

straight grain

straight grain means the direction of the warp threads in a fbric.
this makes them hang better.

34

bias

bias is the diagonal line of a fabric.
the fabric stretches when it is pulled along this line.
clothes cut on the bias drape well

35

knitting

knitting means linking together loops of yarn into knots called stitches.
it is done by hand or marchine.

36

advantages of knitting

stretchy
comfortable
warm
crease resistant

37

non-woven fabrics

non-woven or bonded fabrics are made directly from fibres without being made into yarn.
the fibres are held together suing adhesive, heat, pressure or stitching.

38

advantages of non-woven fabrics

do not fray
are cheap to produce
keep their shape well

39

disadvantages of non-woven fabrics.

do not wear well
felt is damaged by water
non-woven blankets don't trap air and therefore are not as warm as wool

40

Methods of applying pattern to fabric

dyeing

printing

weaving, knitting, and bonding.

41

dyeing

a dye is a substance added to fabric to give it colour.

42

two types of dyes

natural dyes eg. berries and leaves

synthetic dyes

43

printing + examples

printing means applying colour and pattern to one side of the fabric only.

Eg:
block printing
screen printing
fabric pens
transfer crayons
fabric paints

44

Weaving, knitting, and bonding

In woven and knitted fabrics, the yarns are arranged to form certain patterns.

In non-woven or bonded fabrics, the fibres are arranged.

45

Identifying fibres test

the burn test

46

Identifying protein fibres

wool/silk

As it gets near flame - fibres stick together and curl away from the flame.

When it touches flame - burns very slowly

After it touches flame - stops burning

Smell - Like burning hair, feathers or nail clippings

Residue - Dark, soft ash, easy to crush

47

Identifying cellulose fibres

Cotton/linen/viscose

As it gets near flame - Ignites as it draws near

When it touches flame - Burns quickly

After it touches flame - Goes on burning

Smell - Like burning paper

Residue - Grey ash, like a sheet of paper when burned

48

Identifying nylon

As it gets near flame - Fibres melt and shrink away from the flame; may drip

When it touches flame - Melts and burns slowly

After it touches flame - Usually goes out

Smell - Like celery

Residue - Hard beads - light grey or beige

49

Fabric finishes

A fabric finish is a chemical treatment applied to a fabric to improve its appearance or performance.

Eg. Fabrics can be made crease resistant or waterproof.

50

Types of fabric finishes

Brushing

Flame proof

Permanent pleating

Waterproof

Stain repellent

Shrink resistant

Crease resistant

51

Brushing

Purpose
Makes fabric feel softer and warmer, eg. brushed nylon or cotton/flannelette

Uses
Children's nightwear and bed clothes

52

Flame proof

Purpose
Makes fabric less flammable

Uses
Children's nightwear, furnishing fabrics

53

Permanent pleating

Purpose
Pleats don't fall out, no need to iron

Use
Skirts, trousers

54

Waterproof

Purpose
Prevents any water getting through

Uses
Raincoats, outdoor sports wear

55

Stain repellent

Purpose
Prevents stains from penetrating

Uses Carpets, upholstery, clothing fabrics

56

Shrink resistant

Purpose
Prevents shrinking

Uses
Furnishing fabrics, clothing

57

Crease resistant

Purpose
Creases fall out more easily, less ironing required

Uses
Shirts, dresses, trousers, tablecloth, curtains