Flashcards in Fibres and fabrics Deck (58)
Fibres are fine, hair-like structures.
They are used to make yarn and yarn is used to make fabric.
Fabric --> Yarn --> Fabric --> Garment
Production of cotton
-Comes from boll of cotton plant
-Bolls are picked by hand/machine
-Fibres are separated from seeds (ginning)
-Fibres pressed into bales.
-Cotton is graded
-Fibres combined + spun into yarn.
Properties of cotton
Easy to wash and dry
Not very stretchy
Damaged by mildew
Fabrics & uses for cotton
Where does linen come from
the flax plant
Production of linen
Stems pulled up by their roots
stems are left to soak for several weeks to rot (retting)
fibres are separated
fibres are combined & spun into yarn
long fibres --> fine yarn
short fibres --> coarse yarn
properties of linen
damaged by mildew
fabrics & uses for linen
Production of wool
-fleece (hair) is removed from sheep
-it is graded
-cleaned & combed (carding)
-spun into yarn
properties of wool
feels itchy beside skin
easily scorched, damaged by moths
does not dry easily
fabrics and uses of wool
Production of silk
-Produced from silkworm
-Silk moth lays eggs, new worms feed on leaves of mulberry tree
-Worms spin cocoons of silk
-Cocoons are heated, soeaked. Threads are removed.
-Threads are wound onto reeks.
-The threads are spun into yarn.
properties of silk
damaged by moths
damages by chemicals
fabrics and uses for silk
Two types of manufactured fibres
what do regenerated fibres contain?
Regenerated fibres contain cellulose because they come from plants.
-Wood, seaweed and cotton waste are crushed and used to make fibres.
Production of regenerated fibres
-cellulose and cotton waste is pulped and mixed with chemicals.
-it is made into a thick liquid
-the liquid is forced through tiny holes in a spinneret (like a shower head) to make yarn
-Yarn is twisted and cut
Properties of regenerated fabrics
easy to dye
fabrics and uses for regenerated fabrics
Production of synthetic fibres
-chemicals from petroleum are mixed to produce a thick liquid.
-The liquid is forced through tiny holes in a spinneret
-Long uniform fibres (continuous filaments) are twisted together to make smooth yarn.
-Fibres can be cut into short (staple) fibres
properties of synthetic fabrics
does not absorb moisture
fabrics and uses for synthetic fibres
denier is used to describe the thickness of manufactured fibres.
The lower the number, the finer the yarn.
various fabrics can be combined to create fabrics with many desirable properties eg. polycotton
spinning is the process of twisting fibres into yarn.
loose twist = soft, bulky yarn
tight twist = finer, stronger yarn
weaving is the interlacing of yarns at right angles to each other.
weaving is done on a loom.
the warp, or strong thread, runs in the direction of the length of the fabric.
the weft, or weaker thread, runs in the direction of the width of the fabric.
the side of the fabric running in the direction of the warp threads.
the selvage stops sides fraying.
straight grain means the direction of the warp threads in a fbric.
this makes them hang better.
bias is the diagonal line of a fabric.
the fabric stretches when it is pulled along this line.
clothes cut on the bias drape well
knitting means linking together loops of yarn into knots called stitches.
it is done by hand or marchine.
advantages of knitting
non-woven or bonded fabrics are made directly from fibres without being made into yarn.
the fibres are held together suing adhesive, heat, pressure or stitching.
advantages of non-woven fabrics
do not fray
are cheap to produce
keep their shape well
disadvantages of non-woven fabrics.
do not wear well
felt is damaged by water
non-woven blankets don't trap air and therefore are not as warm as wool
Methods of applying pattern to fabric
weaving, knitting, and bonding.
a dye is a substance added to fabric to give it colour.
two types of dyes
natural dyes eg. berries and leaves
printing + examples
printing means applying colour and pattern to one side of the fabric only.
Weaving, knitting, and bonding
In woven and knitted fabrics, the yarns are arranged to form certain patterns.
In non-woven or bonded fabrics, the fibres are arranged.
Identifying fibres test
the burn test
Identifying protein fibres
As it gets near flame - fibres stick together and curl away from the flame.
When it touches flame - burns very slowly
After it touches flame - stops burning
Smell - Like burning hair, feathers or nail clippings
Residue - Dark, soft ash, easy to crush
Identifying cellulose fibres
As it gets near flame - Ignites as it draws near
When it touches flame - Burns quickly
After it touches flame - Goes on burning
Smell - Like burning paper
Residue - Grey ash, like a sheet of paper when burned
As it gets near flame - Fibres melt and shrink away from the flame; may drip
When it touches flame - Melts and burns slowly
After it touches flame - Usually goes out
Smell - Like celery
Residue - Hard beads - light grey or beige
A fabric finish is a chemical treatment applied to a fabric to improve its appearance or performance.
Eg. Fabrics can be made crease resistant or waterproof.
Types of fabric finishes
Makes fabric feel softer and warmer, eg. brushed nylon or cotton/flannelette
Children's nightwear and bed clothes
Makes fabric less flammable
Children's nightwear, furnishing fabrics
Pleats don't fall out, no need to iron
Prevents any water getting through
Raincoats, outdoor sports wear
Prevents stains from penetrating
Uses Carpets, upholstery, clothing fabrics
Furnishing fabrics, clothing