Vegetables Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Vegetables Deck (38)
1

Greens

Broccoli
spinach
cabbage
Cauliflower
Brussels sprouts

2

Roots

Carrots
Parsnip
Potato
Onion
Turnip
Beetroot

3

Pulses

Peas
Beans
Lentils

4

Fruits

Tomato
Cucumber
Pepper
Courtette
Aubergine
Pumpkin

5

Protein

LBV found in peas, beans, lentils (pulse veg).
Very important in vegan diet bc protein is useful for growth

6

Fat

No fat, pulses have small amount

7

Minerals

Calcium in green leafy veg + some root and pulse veg. Healthy bones.
Iron in green + root veg. Healthy blood.
Trace elements in pulse veg.

8

Water

Contain a lot (75-95%)

9

Carbohydrates

Sugar in beetroot, carrots, parsnips, onions. Provide energy.
Starch in pulses + root, esp. potatoes. Provide energy.
Fibre in all, esp. in skin. Prevents constipation.

10

Vitamins

C - healthy skin, found in fresh young veg, esp. peppers.
A (carotene) - healthy eyes, in carrots + green leafy veg,
B group - release of energy, in pulses.

11

Composition of green vegetables

Protein - Trace

Fat - 0%

Carbohydrate - 2%

Vitamins - A, C

Minerals - Calcium, iron

Water - 90-95%

12

Composition of root vegetables

Protein - Trace

Fat - 0%

Carbohydrate - 5-29%

Vitamins - A, C

Minerals - Calcium, Iron

Water - 75-90%

13

Composition of pulse vegetables

Protein - 2-7%

Fat - Trace

Carbohydrate - 4-10%

Vitamins - A, C

Minerals - Calcium, Iron

Water - 75-90%

14

Composition of fruit vegetables

Protein - Trace

Fat - 0%

Carbohydrate - 5-20%

Vitamins - A, C

Minerals - Calcium, Iron

Water - 80-90%

15

Uses of vegetables

Important to eat five portions of fruit &/or veg every day
-Inc in breakfast dishes
-Lunch and main meal
-Juices
-Salads + soups
-Sandwiches
-Snacks, eg. carrot sticks
-Pasta dishes
-Stews and casseroles
-Pizza toppings
-Veg-based main courses, eg. veggie burgers

16

Preparing vegetables

In order to retain nutrients when preparing fruit/veg.
-Peep just before cooking
-Eat veg raw and unpeeled if possible
-Peel thinly to retain fibre content
-Use sharp knife to avoid damage to veg
-Do not steep veg

17

Preparing green veg

Remove wilted leaves
Separate leaves + wash each under cold running water
Chop w/ sharp knife if necessary
Do not steep

18

Preparing root veg

Scrub
Remove ends. Peel if necessary.
Use whole, cut into wedges, sliced or diced.
Do not steep.

19

Preparing pulse vegetables

Fresh: Remove from pods. Wash in cold water.
Dried: Soak overnight.

20

Preparing fruit vegetables

Wash in cold water.
Peel only if necessary.
Chop or slice.

21

Cooking method - boiling

Cabbage, brussels sprouts, pulse vegetables

22

Cooking method - Steaming

All types

23

Cooking method - Microwave cooking

All types

24

Cooking method - Grilling

Tomatos, peppers

25

Cooking method - roasting

Root vegetables, peppers

26

Cooking method - cooking in stews/casseroles

Root vegetables

27

Cooking method - stir frying

Courgettes, broccoli, onions, sweetcorn, peppers, carrots

28

Cooking method - frying

Onions, tomatos

29

Cooking method - baking

Potatos, pepepers, tomatos, parsnips

30

Cooking method - stewing

Potatoes, carrots, parsnips, turnips, peppers

31

Guidelines on cooking vegetables

Cook for shortest possible time. Texture should be al dente (should be slightly firm)
Use cooking liquids in sauces to retain vitamin + mineral dontent
Cover with lid to use minimum amount of water to prevent loss of vitamins + minerals
Do not reheat as vitamins are destroyed
Never use bread soda when cooking veg

32

Effects of cooking on vegetables

Vitamins + minerals dissolve into cooking liquid
Vit. C destroyed
Fibre becomes soft
Starch becomes more digestible. eg. potatoes
Some colour, flavour, texture lost

33

Classification of vegetables

Greens
roots
Pulses
Fruits

34

Buying fresh fruits and vegetables

In seasons, cheap, best quality
Choose medium-sized, large ones lack flavour
Choose fresh, brightly coloured
Avoid bruised
Buy usable quantities
Check pre-packed for bruising and mould

35

Organic produce

Grown without use of artificial fertilisers or chemicals.
More expensive.

36

EU regulations and grading

Clean, sound, free from chemicals.
Graded.
Marked clearly - origin, variety, class.

37

Classes

Class extra - Best quality
Class I - Good quality
Class II - Marketable quality, but may have some defects
Class III - Marketable but inferior

38

Storing fruits and vegetables

Remove packaging.
Root vegetables on a rack. Cool, dark, dry, well-ventilated place.
Greens and fruits (except bananas) in fridge. Use as soon as possible after purchase.
Dried pulses stored in airtight jars.