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30

AEGIS

Alpha fibers : extrafusal fibers

Gamma fibers : intrafusal fibers

Skeletal

31

Pathway of muscle reflex

Muscle stretch -> intrafusal stretch -> stimulates Ia afferent -> stimulates alpha motor neuron -> reflex extrafusal contraction

32

Site where arachnoid granulations transport CSF from subarachnoid space into the bloodstream

Superior Sagittarius sinus


- site of defect in normal pressure hydrocephalus - "wet, wacky, wobbly"

33

Innervated by radial nerve

Radial nerve innervates the BEST

Brachioradialis
Extensors of the wrist and fingers
Supinator
Triceps

34

Raleased by Eosinophils

Major Basic Protein

Eosinophilia detected in NAACP

Neoplasia
Asthma
Allergies
Collagen disorder
Parasitic infections

35

Level of horizontal fissure or right lung

Level of 4th rib anteriorly

- separates right upper lobe from middle lobe

36

Relation of pulmonary artery to the bronchus at each lung hills


"RALS"

Right anterior, Left superior

Pulmonary artery is anterior to bronchus at right

Pulmonary artery is superior to bronchus at left

37

Why more aspiration in right lung

Right main stem bronchus is WIDER and more VERTICAL than left

38

Cremaster reflex NS

L1-L2

- most injured in hernia repair
- defect: numbness of scrotum and inner thigh

Note most injured vaginal delivery: S2-S4 pudendal nerve. Innervates external genitalia. Presents with bowel and bladder incontinence, perineal anesthesia.

39

Responsible for central vision

Macula in occipital pole

- PCA supplies occipital lobe, responsible for perceiving LATERAL visual field in both eyes
- Meyer's loop is the INFERIOR division of optic radiations as they pass through the temporal lobe. Supplied by MCA.

40

Identify presentation of a CN 7 lesion (5)

1 dec taste sensation anterior 2/3 IPSI tongue - chorda tympani
2 retroauricular pain - sensory to small area of IPSI ear
3 IPSI facial paralysis - motor to muscles of facial expression
4 inc sensitivity to noise IPSI ear - NS to STAPEDIUS ms which normally prevents excessive movement of stapes
5 dryness IPSI eye and mouth - PNS to IPSI lacrimal gland, submandibular and sublingual gland

41

Basal ganglia direct vs indirect pathway

Which is inhibitory?

INdirect pathway : INhibits movement

D1 receptor : D1rect pathway

- D1rect pathway : D1 receptor : facilitates movement
- INdirect pathway : INhibits movement : D2 receptor

- Lentiform nucleus = put amen + globus pallidus
- Striatum = putamen (motor) + caudate (cognitive)
- recall nigroStriatal pathway

42

Count up innervation of reflexes ankle, knee, biceps and triceps

ankle S1 2
knee L3 4
biceps L5 6
triceps L7 8

43

AEGIS

Alpha fibers : extrafusal fibers

Gamma fibers : intrafusal fibers

Skeletal

44

Pathway of muscle reflex

Muscle stretch -> intrafusal stretch -> stimulates Ia afferent -> stimulates alpha motor neuron -> reflex extrafusal contraction

45

Site where arachnoid granulations transport CSF from subarachnoid space into the bloodstream

Superior Sagittarius sinus


- site of defect in normal pressure hydrocephalus - "wet, wacky, wobbly"

46

Innervated by radial nerve

Radial nerve innervates the BEST

Brachioradialis
Extensors of the wrist and fingers
Supinator
Triceps

47

Raleased by Eosinophils

Major Basic Protein

Eosinophilia detected in NAACP

Neoplasia
Asthma
Allergies
Collagen disorder
Parasitic infections

48

Level of horizontal fissure or right lung

Level of 4th rib anteriorly

- separates right upper lobe from middle lobe

49

Relation of pulmonary artery to the bronchus at each lung hills


"RALS"

Right anterior, Left superior

Pulmonary artery is anterior to bronchus at right

Pulmonary artery is superior to bronchus at left

50

Why more aspiration in right lung

Right main stem bronchus is WIDER and more VERTICAL than left

51

Cremaster reflex NS

L1-L2

- most injured in hernia repair
- defect: numbness of scrotum and inner thigh

Note most injured vaginal delivery: S2-S4 pudendal nerve. Innervates external genitalia. Presents with bowel and bladder incontinence, perineal anesthesia.

52

Responsible for central vision

Macula in occipital pole

- PCA supplies occipital lobe, responsible for perceiving LATERAL visual field in both eyes
- Meyer's loop is the INFERIOR division of optic radiations as they pass through the temporal lobe. Supplied by MCA.

53

Identify presentation of a CN 7 lesion (5)

1 dec taste sensation anterior 2/3 IPSI tongue - chorda tympani
2 retroauricular pain - sensory to small area of IPSI ear
3 IPSI facial paralysis - motor to muscles of facial expression
4 inc sensitivity to noise IPSI ear - NS to STAPEDIUS ms which normally prevents excessive movement of stapes
5 dryness IPSI eye and mouth - PNS to IPSI lacrimal gland, submandibular and sublingual gland

54

Basal ganglia direct vs indirect pathway

Which is inhibitory?

INdirect pathway : INhibits movement

D1 receptor : D1rect pathway

- D1rect pathway : D1 receptor : facilitates movement
- INdirect pathway : INhibits movement : D2 receptor

- Lentiform nucleus = put amen + globus pallidus
- Striatum = putamen (motor) + caudate (cognitive)
- recall nigroStriatal pathway

55

Count up innervation of reflexes ankle, knee, biceps and triceps

ankle S1 2
knee L3 4
biceps L5 6
triceps L7 8

56

AEGIS

Alpha fibers : extrafusal fibers

Gamma fibers : intrafusal fibers

Skeletal

57

Pathway of muscle reflex

Muscle stretch -> intrafusal stretch -> stimulates Ia afferent -> stimulates alpha motor neuron -> reflex extrafusal contraction

58

Site where arachnoid granulations transport CSF from subarachnoid space into the bloodstream

Superior Sagittarius sinus


- site of defect in normal pressure hydrocephalus - "wet, wacky, wobbly"

59

Innervated by radial nerve

Radial nerve innervates the BEST

Brachioradialis
Extensors of the wrist and fingers
Supinator
Triceps