GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF PHARMACOLOGY - PHARMACODYNAMICS Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF PHARMACOLOGY - PHARMACODYNAMICS Deck (40):
1

Pharmacodynamics involves the study of

- Biological and therapeutic effects of drugs
- Mechanisms of drug action
- Drug interactions
- Information about unwanted effects

2

The most appropriate to the term “receptor”

Active macromolecular components of a cell or an organism which a drug molecule has to combine with in order to elicit its specific effect

3

What does “affinity” mean

A measure of how tightly a drug binds to a receptor

4

Target proteins which a drug molecule binds are

- Only receptors
- Only ion channels
- Only carriers

5

An agonist is a substance that

Interacts with the receptor and initiates changes in cell function, producing various effects

6

If an agonist can produce maximal effects and has high efficacy it’s called

Full agonist

7

If an agonist can produce submaximal effects and has moderate efficacy it’s called

Partial agonist

8

An antagonist is a substance that

Binds to the receptors without directly altering their functions

9

A competitive antagonist is a substance that

Binds to the same receptor site and progressively inhibits the agonist response

10

The substance binding to one receptor subtype as an agonist and to another as an antagonist is called

Agonist-antagonist

11

Irreversible interaction of an antagonist with a receptor is due to

Covalent bonds

12

Mechanisms of transmembrane signaling are

- Transmembrane receptors that bind and stimulate a protein tyrosine kinase
- Ligand-gated ion channels that can be induced to open or close by binding a ligand
- Transmembrane receptor protein that stimulates a GTP binding signal transducer protein (G-protein) which in turn generates an intracellular second messenger

13

Tick the second messenger of G-protein-coupled (metabotropic) receptor

cAMP

14

Tick the substance which changes the activity of an effector element but doesn’t belong to second messengers

G–protein

15

The increase of second messengers’ (cAMP, cGMP, Ca2+ etc.) concentration leads to

Proteinkinases activation and protein phosphorylation.

16

Tick the substances whose mechanisms are based on interaction with ion channels

- Sodium channel blockers
- Calcium channel blockers
- Potassium channels activators

17

All of the following statements about efficacy and potency are true

- Efficacy is usually a more important clinical consideration than potency
- Efficacy is the maximum effect of a drug
- Potency is a comparative measure, refers to the different doses of two drugs that are needed to produce the same effect

18

Efficacy

is the maximum effect of a drug

19

Potency

is a comparative measure, refers to the different doses of two drugs that are needed to produce the same effect

20

Therapeutical dose

The amount of a substance to produce the required effect in most patients

21

Toxic dose

The amount of substance to produce effects hazardous for an organism

22

Which effect may lead to toxic reactions when a drug is taken continuously or repeatedly

Cumulative effect

23

What term is used to describe a more gradual decrease in responsiveness to a drug, taking days or weeks to develop?

Tolerance

24

What term is used to describe a decrease in responsiveness to a drug which develops in a few minutes?

Tachyphylaxis

25

Tachyphylaxis

Very rapidly developing tolerance

26

True or False. Drug resistance is a term used to describe the loss of effectiveness of antimicrobial or antitumour drugs.

TRUE

27

Tolerance and drug resistance can be a consequence of

- Increased metabolic degradation
- Change in receptors, loss of them or exhaustion of mediators
-

28

True or False. Dependence is often associated with tolerance to a drug, a physical abstinence syndrome, and psychological dependence (craving).

TRUE

29

The situation when failure to continue administering the drug results in serious psychological and somatic disturbances is called?

Abstinence syndrome

30

What is the type of drug-to-drug interaction which is connected with processes of absorption, biotransformation, distribution and excretion?

Pharmacokinetic interaction

31

What is the type of drug-to-drug interaction which is the result of interaction at receptor, cell, enzyme or organ level?

Pharmacodynamic interaction

32

What phenomenon can occur in case of using a combination of drugs?

Synergism

33

If two drugs with the same effect, taken together, produce an effect that is equal in magnitude to the sum of the effects of the drugs given individually, it is called as

Additive effect

34

What does the term “potentiation” mean?

Intensive increase of drug effects due to their combination

35

The types of antagonism are

Competitive

36

The term “chemical antagonism” means that

Two drugs combine with one another to form an inactive compound

37

A teratogenic action is

Negative action on the fetus causing fetal malformation

38

Characteristic unwanted reaction which isn’t related to a dose or to a pharmacodynamic property of a drug is called

Hypersensitivity

39

Idiosyncratic reaction of a drug is

Unpredictable, inherent, qualitatively abnormal reaction to a drug

40

Therapeutic index (TI) is

A ratio used to evaluate the safety and usefulness of a drug for indication

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