Flashcards in GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF PHARMACOLOGY - PHARMACODYNAMICS Deck (40):
Pharmacodynamics involves the study of
- Biological and therapeutic effects of drugs
- Mechanisms of drug action
- Drug interactions
- Information about unwanted effects
The most appropriate to the term “receptor”
Active macromolecular components of a cell or an organism which a drug molecule has to combine with in order to elicit its specific effect
What does “affinity” mean
A measure of how tightly a drug binds to a receptor
Target proteins which a drug molecule binds are
- Only receptors
- Only ion channels
- Only carriers
An agonist is a substance that
Interacts with the receptor and initiates changes in cell function, producing various effects
If an agonist can produce maximal effects and has high efficacy it’s called
If an agonist can produce submaximal effects and has moderate efficacy it’s called
An antagonist is a substance that
Binds to the receptors without directly altering their functions
A competitive antagonist is a substance that
Binds to the same receptor site and progressively inhibits the agonist response
The substance binding to one receptor subtype as an agonist and to another as an antagonist is called
Irreversible interaction of an antagonist with a receptor is due to
Mechanisms of transmembrane signaling are
- Transmembrane receptors that bind and stimulate a protein tyrosine kinase
- Ligand-gated ion channels that can be induced to open or close by binding a ligand
- Transmembrane receptor protein that stimulates a GTP binding signal transducer protein (G-protein) which in turn generates an intracellular second messenger
Tick the second messenger of G-protein-coupled (metabotropic) receptor
Tick the substance which changes the activity of an effector element but doesn’t belong to second messengers
The increase of second messengers’ (cAMP, cGMP, Ca2+ etc.) concentration leads to
Proteinkinases activation and protein phosphorylation.
Tick the substances whose mechanisms are based on interaction with ion channels
- Sodium channel blockers
- Calcium channel blockers
- Potassium channels activators
All of the following statements about efficacy and potency are true
- Efficacy is usually a more important clinical consideration than potency
- Efficacy is the maximum effect of a drug
- Potency is a comparative measure, refers to the different doses of two drugs that are needed to produce the same effect
is the maximum effect of a drug
is a comparative measure, refers to the different doses of two drugs that are needed to produce the same effect
The amount of a substance to produce the required effect in most patients
The amount of substance to produce effects hazardous for an organism
Which effect may lead to toxic reactions when a drug is taken continuously or repeatedly
What term is used to describe a more gradual decrease in responsiveness to a drug, taking days or weeks to develop?
What term is used to describe a decrease in responsiveness to a drug which develops in a few minutes?
Very rapidly developing tolerance
True or False. Drug resistance is a term used to describe the loss of effectiveness of antimicrobial or antitumour drugs.
Tolerance and drug resistance can be a consequence of
- Increased metabolic degradation
- Change in receptors, loss of them or exhaustion of mediators
True or False. Dependence is often associated with tolerance to a drug, a physical abstinence syndrome, and psychological dependence (craving).
The situation when failure to continue administering the drug results in serious psychological and somatic disturbances is called?
What is the type of drug-to-drug interaction which is connected with processes of absorption, biotransformation, distribution and excretion?
What is the type of drug-to-drug interaction which is the result of interaction at receptor, cell, enzyme or organ level?
What phenomenon can occur in case of using a combination of drugs?
If two drugs with the same effect, taken together, produce an effect that is equal in magnitude to the sum of the effects of the drugs given individually, it is called as
What does the term “potentiation” mean?
Intensive increase of drug effects due to their combination
The types of antagonism are
The term “chemical antagonism” means that
Two drugs combine with one another to form an inactive compound
A teratogenic action is
Negative action on the fetus causing fetal malformation
Characteristic unwanted reaction which isn’t related to a dose or to a pharmacodynamic property of a drug is called
Idiosyncratic reaction of a drug is
Unpredictable, inherent, qualitatively abnormal reaction to a drug