CHEMOTHERAPEUTIC DRUGS - ANTIBIOTICS Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in CHEMOTHERAPEUTIC DRUGS - ANTIBIOTICS Deck (58):
1

What does the term “antibiotics” mean

Substances produced by some microorganisms and their synthetic analogues that selectively kill or inhibit
the growth of another microorganisms

2

General principles of anti-infective therapy are

- Clinical judgment of microbiological factors
- Definitive identification of a bacterial infection and the microorganism’s susceptibility
- Optimal route of administration, dose, dosing frequency and duration of treatment

3

Minimal duration of antibacterial treatment usually is

Not less than 5 days

4

Rational anti-microbial combination is used to

- Provide synergism when microorganisms are not effectively eradicated with a single agent alone
- Provide broad coverage
- Prevent the emergence of resistance

5

Mechanisms of bacterial resistance to anti-microbial agents are

- Active transport out of a microorganism or/and hydrolysis of an agent via enzymes produced by a microorganism
- Modification of a drug’s target
- Reduced uptake by a microorganism

6

True or False. The statement, that some microorganisms can develop alternative metabolic pathways for rendering reactions inhibited by the drug

TRUE

7

Bactericidal effect is

Destroying of bacterial cells

8

Which roups of antibiotics demonstrates a bactericidal effect?

Penicillins

9

Bacteristatic effect is

Inhibition of bacterial cell division

10

Which groups of antibiotics demonstrates a bacteristatic effect

Macrolides

11

Which antibiotics contains a beta-lactam ring in their chemical structure

- Penicillins
- Cephalosporins
- Carbapenems and monobactams

12

Drug belonging to antibiotics-macrolides

Erythromycin

13

Drug belonging to antibiotics-carbapenems

Imipinem

14

Drug belonging to antibiotics-monobactams

Aztreonam

15

Drug belongs to antibiotics-cephalosporins

Cefaclor

16

Drug belonging to lincozamides

Lincomycin

17

Drug belonging to antibiotics-tetracyclines

Doxycycline

18

Exemples of aminoglycosides

- Gentamycin
- Streptomycin
- Neomycin

19

Drug belonging to nitrobenzene derivative

Chloramphenicol

20

Drug belonging to glycopeptides

Vancomycin

21

Antibiotics inhibiting the bacterial cell wall synthesis are

Beta-lactam antibiotics

22

Antibiotic inhibiting bacterial RNA synthesis is

Rifampin

23

Antibiotics altering permeability of cell membranes are

Polymyxins

24

All of the following antibiotics inhibit the protein synthesis in bacterial cells

- Macrolides
- Aminoglycosides
- Tetracyclines

25

Biosynthetic penicillins are effective against

Gram-positive and gram-negative cocci, Corynebacterium diphtheria, spirochetes, Clostridium gangrene

26

Which drugs is a gastric acid resistant

Penicillin V

27

Which drugs is penicillinase resistant

Oxacillin

28

All of the following drugs demonstrate a prolonged effect

- Procain penicillin
- Bicillin-1
- Bicillin-5

29

Mechanism of penicillins’ antibacterial effect is

Inhibition of transpeptidation in the bacterial cell wall

30

Beta-lactamase inhibitor for co-administration with penicillins

- Clavulanic acid
- Sulbactam
- Tazobactam

31

Cephalosporines are drugs of choice for treatment of

Gram-negative and gram-positive microorganism infections, if penicillins have no effect

32

Carbapenems are effective against

Broad-spectum

33

All of the following antibiotics are macrolides

- Erythromycin
- Clarithromycin
- Roxythromycin

34

Tetracyclins have following unwanted effects

- Irritation of gastrointestinal mucosa, phototoxicity
- Hepatotoxicity, anti-anabolic effect
- Dental hypoplasia, bone deformities

35

Drug belonging to antibiotics-aminoglycosides

Gentamycin

36

Aminoglycosides are effective against

Broad-spectum, except anaerobic microorganisms and viruses

37

Aminoglycosides have the following unwanted effects

Ototoxicity, nephrotoxicity

38

Characteristics of chloramphenicol

Broad-spectum. Demonstrates a bactericidal effect.

39

Chloramphenicol has the following unwanted effects

Pancytopenia

40

Characteristics of lincozamides

Influence mainly the anaerobic organisms, Gram positive cocci.

41

Lincozamides have the following unwanted effect

Pseudomembranous colitis

42

Characteristics of vancomicin

It is a glycopeptide, inhibits cell wall synthesis and is active only against Gram-positive bacteria.

43

Vancomicin has the following unwanted effects

“Red neck” syndrome, phlebitis

44

Which drugs is used for systemic and deep mycotic infections treatment:

Amphotericin B

45

Which drugs is used for dermatomycosis treatment

Griseofulvin

46

Which drugs is used for candidiasis treatment

Myconazol

47

The following antifungal drugs are antibiotics

Myconazol

48

Mechanism of Amphotericin B action is

Alteration of cell membrane permeability

49

Azoles have an antifungal effect because of

Reduction of ergosterol synthesis

50

Which drugs alters permeability of Candida cell membranes

Nystatin

51

Amfotericin B has the following unwanted effects

Renal impairment, anemia

52

Drug belonging to antibiotics having a polyene structure

Nystatin

53

The following drugs demonstrate a fungicidal effect

- Terbinafin
- Ketoconazole
- Myconazol

54

The following drug do not demonstrate a fungicidal effect

Amfotericin B

55

Characteristics of polyenes are

- Alter the structure and functions of cell membranes
- Broad-spectrum
- Nephrotoxicity, hepatotoxicity

56

Characteristics of polyenes are not

Fungicidal effect

57

Characteristics of Amfotericin B are

- Used for systemic mycosis treatment
- Poor absorption from the gastro-intestinal tract
- Influences the permeability of fungus cell membrane

58

Characteristics of Amfotericin B are not

Does not demonstrate nephrotoxicity

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