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Flashcards in Haematology Deck (80):
1

What is the lifespan of an RBC?

120 days

2

What are the 3 types of granulocytes?

Basophils, eosinophils, neutrophils

3

What is an immature RBC in the blood stream called?

Reticulocyte

4

What is the average lifespan of a platelet cell?

8-10 days

5

What shape is the nucleus of a monocyte?

Kidney /bean shaped

6

What is the diameter of a platelet cell?

2-4 um

7

What is the diameter of an RBC?

7.2 microns

8

Which is the most abundant WBC?

Neutrophil

9

What's the most important FBE index to determine the cause of an anaemia?

MCV (mean corpuscular volume)

10

A patient with microcytic anaemia and low ferrettin has what?

Iron deficiency anaemia

11

What are the two main causes of microcytic anaemia?

Iron deficiency and thalasaemia

12

If someone has normocytic anaemia, what is the next test you should look at?

Ferretin to see if it is due to iron deficiency or thalasaemia

13

What are the 4 main causes of normocytic anaemia?

Acute blood loss Bone marrow failure Chronic disease Destruction (haemolysis)

14

Normocytic anaemia with low reticulocyte count suggests what?

Bone marrow failure - bone marrow can't produce enough new RBCs to keep up with anaemia

15

Deficiency of what in the diet will cause macrocytic anaemia?

Folate and B12

16

If there is a normocytic anaemia, what is the next test result you need to look at?

Is there reticulocytosis (to see if bone marrow is working)?

17

If there is a macrocytic anaemia, what is the next test result you need to look at?

Is it megaloblastic?

18

What is haematocrit?

Percentage of blood volume that is RBC volume

19

What type of WBC is this?

Q image thumb

Basophil

20

What type of WBC is this?

Q image thumb

Neutrophil

21

What shape is the nucleus of a monocyte?

Kidney /bean shaped or eccentric oval

22

Which WBC has a bilobed nucleus?

Eosinophils and basophils

23

Which WBC has a kidney-shaped nucleus?

Basophils OR Monocytes

24

What type of WBC is this?

Q image thumb

Eosinophil

25

What type of WBC is this?

Q image thumb

Basophil

26

What type of WBC is this?

Q image thumb

Monocyte

27

A raised neutrophil count indicates what?

acute inflammation, especially seen in bacterial infections

28

What type of WBC is this?

Q image thumb

Monocyte

29

What type of WBC is this?

Q image thumb

Neutrophil

30

What type of cell is this?

Q image thumb

Lymphocyte

31

What is the diameter of a platelet cell?

2-4 um

32

What type of blood cell is this?

Q image thumb

Megakaryocyte

33

What type of WBC is this?

Q image thumb

Neutrophil

34

What type of WBC is this?

Q image thumb

Eosinophil

35

What type of WBC is this?

Q image thumb

Monocyte

36

Which WBC has a multil-lobed nucleus?

Neutrophils

37

What type of WBC is this?

Q image thumb

Monocyte

38

Which is the largest WBC?

Monocyte

39

What type of WBC is this?

Q image thumb

Basophil

40

What type of WBC is this?

Q image thumb

Eosinophil

41

What type of WBC is this?

Q image thumb

Neutrophil

42

Which is the most abundant WBC?

Neutrophil

43

What type of cell is this?

Q image thumb

Neutrophil

44

How long after entering tissue until neutrophils die?

Within hours

45

Describe laminar blood flow and the relative positions of WBCs, platelets and RBCs 

Larger components of blood are in centre of lumen, thus WBC > RBC > platelets from centre to periphery.

46

In what form does Hb carries about 15% of its respiratory carbon dioxide?

carbaminohaemoglobin

 

47

What percentage of respiratory carbon dioxide does Hb carry as carbaminohaemoglobin?

15%

48

Name three factors that can shift the O2 saturation curve to the right

Increased DPG Increased temperature Decreased pH

49

What is APTT

Activated partial thrombin time

50

What percentage of red blood cell dry content does Hb make up?

97%

51

What makes up about 97% of red blood cell dry content?

Hb

52

List 5 acute signs of hypovolaemia

Tachycardia 

Hypotension

Cold/clammy skin

Poor capillary refill (> 2 secs)

Tachypnea (if severe hypovolaemia)

53

Why does Hb carry nitric oxide bound to a globin thiol group? And when does Hb release it?

It rrelaxes vascular walls and enhance gas diffusion. Hb releases NO at the same time as oxygen.

54

What effect does shifting the O2 saturation curve to the right have on Hb affinity for O2?

Decrease

55

Describe 5 steps in secondary haemostasis

1 vessel damage releases tissue factor 2 extrinsic pathway: parathrombin → thrombin, 3 fibrinogen to fibrin, 4 fibrin crosslinks under factor XIIIa control 5 meshwork

56

What are the 3 components of Virchow's triad of thrombosis?

Vessel wall Blood composition Blood flow

57

What is the descending order of WBC concentrations in the blood?

NLMEB

58

What is the molecular target of warfarin?

Vitamin K reductase

Inhibition of this prevents reduced VitK acting as a cofactor for activation of factors 2, 7, 9 and 10

59

What percentage of the blood is in the arteries?

13%

60

 

Which factors does warfarin inhibit?

 

 

2, 7, 9, 10

 

61

Describe 4 steps in primary haemostasis

1 Vessel damage exposes von Willibrand factor on basement membrane and collagen 2 vWF binds to Gp1b on platelets 3 Platelet: adhere, flatten, recruit, degranulate (ADP and thromboxin A2) 4 platelet plug

62

What percentage of the blood is in the heart?

7%

63

What percentage of the blood is in the capillaries?

5%

64

What is INR and how is it calculated?

International normalised ratio INR = (patient PT/normal PT)^ISI INR = (Patient prothrombin time/mean normal prothrombin time)^international sensitivity index

65

What effect does shifting the O2 saturation curve to the left have on Hb affinity for O2?

Increase

66

What percentage of the blood is in the lungs?

10%

67

What percentage of the blood is in the veins?

65%

68

 

A raised INR indicates which 2 possible things?

 

 

There is a problem with Factor VII or the patient is on warfarin

 

69

Define anaemia and which two blood tests are used most often in diagnosis

A reduction of the total circulating red cell mass below normal limits.

Haematocrit and haemoglobin concentration

70

Dietary deficiences of which 3 substances may cause anaemia?

Iron, VitB12, folate

71

Define embolus

Intravascular mass carried in the blood stream to a remote site.  May be solid, liquid or gaseous

72

Name three factors that can shift the O2 saturation curve to the left

Decreased DPG Decreased temperature Increased pH

73

What are the constitutive subunits of Hb in adults and foetuses?

Adults: 2 alpha and 2 beta Foetuses: 2 alpha and 2 gamma

74

What is the molecular target of heparin?

Heparin enhances activity of antithrombin III, which inhibits factor Xa and thrombin 

75

 

What are the 3 main components of the coagulation system?

 

 

Vasoconstriction, platelet plug and fibrin mesh

 

76

Name 3 vasoactive agents that endothelium releases and describe their effect on vasculature

Vasoconstrictor: endothelin
Vasodilator: NO and prostacyclin (PGI2)

 

77

List 5 factors that may affect the effects of warfarin

Diet (VitK)

Hepatic disease

Hypermetabolic state

Pregnancy

Drug interactions, eg NSAIDs, EtOH

78

What converts fibrinogen → fibrin?

 

Thrombin

79

Which factors is vitamin K a co-factor for?

2, 7, 9, 10

ie the same cofactors that warfarin affects

80

What is the most abundant protein in blood plasma?

Serum albumin