Define the Cori cycle
Glycogen => glucose => lactate in muscle Lactate travels to liver Lactate => glucose in liver Glucose goes back to muscle => glycogen
Which vitamin is niacin?
What are the 3 ketone bodies?
Beta-hydroxybutyrate Acetone Acetoacetate
How many ATP are produced for each NADH?
What does VItC deficiency cause?
What is the major determinant of glycogen glucose conversion?
Insulin: glucagon ratio
What is the cutoff for waist circumference for greatly increased risk of metabolic complications for females?
What happens to leptin in obesity?
There is a decreased sensitivity to leptin, but increased amounts of leptin
Which cells secrete CCK?
I cells of the small intestine
In what part of the cell does beta oxidation occur?
How many H+ are put into the intermembrane space for each NADH molecule?
How many H+ are put into the intermembrane space for each FADH2 molecule?
Which vitamin is riboflavin?
What is the key sign for VitB2 deficiency?
What are the 4 Ds of pellagra?
Photosensitive dermatitis. Diarrhoea. Dementia. Death
What is the range for BMI to be obese?
What is the cutoff for waist circumference for increased risk of metabolic complications for males?
Where does vitamin K come from?
It is produced by gut flora
Where do we get intrinsic factor from?
It is synthesised by parietal cells of the stomach
Deficiency of which vitamin will cause xerophthalmia?
Why is VitC often given with iron supplements?
VitC reduces Fe3+ to Fe2+, which is better absorbed
How do RBCs produce most of their energy?
Which cells release insulin?
Beta cells of the islets of Langerhans of the pancreas
What is the advantage of chylomicrons from the gut travelling through lymphatics to reach blood?
It bypasses the liver
Where and in which order is VitD hydroxylated?
Skin => liver => kidney
What is transported into cells with glucose via GLUT-4 transporters?
What disease will deficiency of niacin cause?
What is the most abundant mineral in the human body?
What are the 3 defining features of a vitamin?
Organic compound Not made by the body Essential biochemical funcitons
Where is ghreline released?
Which organs have glucose-6-phostphatase?
Liver and kidney
Which vitamin is pyridoxine?
What happens when muscles release excessive calcium and become an uncontrolled ATPase?
What inhibits carnitine acyl transferase 1?
What happens to insulin levels in starvation?
What causes Wilson's disease?
What is the classic triad of symptoms for diabetes?
Polydipsia, polyphagia polyuria
What happens to glucose in the liver when glycogen stores are saturated?
Glucose is converted to fatty acids
What do muscles use for fuel with bursts of heave activity eg 50m sprint?
Which vitamin is thiamine?
What is the significance of glycogen being insoluble?
Exerts little osmotic effect
How many phases of insulin release are there after a meal?
Name 3 consequences of calcium deficiency
Rickets. osteoporosis and poor blood clotting
Which organelle is an endosymbiotic bacteria?
In disease of which organelle do we often see ragged red fibers?
Which enzyme allows the liver to export glucose to the blood?
How long will glycogen reserves last in the fasting state with relative inactivity?
Which enzyme converts glycogen => glucose-1-phosphate
What is a typical daily dietary energy requirement for an adult?
How much protein do we make and break down every day?
What is the range for BMI to be underweight?
Where is ammonia processed into urea?
What does excessive iron cause?
What is at the core of glycogen?
The levels of which hormone increase just befor a meal?
Which monosaccharide(s) are aldoses?
Glucose and galactose
What are the side effects of orlistat?
Explosive diarrhoea. Steatorrhea
Release of which hormone is stimulated by hyperglycaemia?
In what part of the cell does glycolysis occur?
What is another name for dextrose?
What are the two major families of sugars?
Aldose and ketose
Which monosaccharide(s) are ketoses?
What will happen if there are too many free fatty acids in the blood that are not bound to albumin?
Release of which hormone is stimulated by hypoglycaemia?
How many molecules of ATP are yielded from aerobic metabolism of 1 glucose molecule?
30 or 32
What is the range for BMI to be morbidly obese?
What diseases will insufficient thiamin cause?
Beriberi and Wernicke's Encephalopathy
Which glucose transporter does insulin upregulate?
Which fuel source is premium during starvation?
Which hormone does ghrelin antagonise?
Why can't humans digest cellulose?
Don't have an enzyme to break the beta 1,4 bonds
Where in the cell does ketone acid synthesis occur?
What mediates the effects of ghrelin?
Which vitamin is a cofactor in collagen synthesis?
What part of triacyglycerols can be used to make glucose?
Which pathway is VitK important for?
What is a biochemical role of thiamine?
It is a co-factor for pyruvate decarboxylase (pyruvate => Acetyl CoA)
Glucose is all ___ ____ _____ .
Glucose is all D except 3
What is the order of B vitamins?
Thiamine. Riboflavin. Niacin. Pyridoxine. Cobalamin. The rich never park cars
Which vitamin is cobalamin?
What would happen if you gave GLP-1 with food?
You would feel more full and eat less
What is the cutoff for waist circumference for increased risk of metabolic complications for females?
What percentage of Australians are overweight or obese?
How is VitB12 absorbed?
With intrinsic factor in the terminal ileum
Which two drugs are TGA approved for treatment of obesity?
Phentermine and orlistat
How is BMI calculated?
weight (kg) / height (m)^2
Why can't the brain use fatty acids for energy?
FAs can't cross BBB
What condition is caused by a diet that is severely deficient in energy and moderately deficient in protein?
How do fatty acids get into the mitochondria?
Carnitine acyl transferase
What effects may VitB12 deficiency have?
Dementia. Pernicious anaemia.
In starvation, what can fatty acids be turned into?
What happens to sperm mitochondria at fertilisation?
They are discarded
What effect does adrenaline have on carbohydrate metabolism in the liver?
Causes catabolism of glycogen into glucose
Which nucleus of the hypothalamus does ghrelin stimulate?
How does phentermine treat obesity?
Sympathomimetic => supresses appetite
Which cells produce leptin?
What is the preferred fuel for skeletal muscle?
What is the cutoff for waist circumference for greatly increased risk of metabolic complications for males?
Which vitamin will you run out of first if you stop eating?
Which protein causes uncoupling in brown fat?
Which vitamin is niacin?
What disease causes engorged lysosomes full of glycogen due to a deficiency of alpha 1,4 glucosidase?
What causes pellagra?
Insufficient VitB3 (niacin)
Which organs express GLUT4?
Muscle, adipose tissue and heart
How does orlistat treat obesity?
It is a lipase inhibitor => inhibits absorption of fat
What is created when electrons escape from the electron transport chain?
Reactive oxygen species
Why can't fatty acids be converted into glucose?
Can't convert acetyl CoA into pyruvate
What is starch?
A branched polymer of glucose found in many plants
What are the side effects of phentermine?
Increased HR and BP, anxiety, insomnia, dry mouth, headache
What does VitD deficiency cause in children?
How many mitochondria are there per cell?
How much glucose does the brain need per day?
How long will thiamine reserves last if you stop eating completely?
How much energy is there per mol of ATP?
How are fatty acids transported in the blood?
Bound to albumin
How does the retina produce most of its energy?
After several days of starvation, what is the main source of carbon backbone for gluconeogenesis?
Glycerol from TAGs
Where in the body can fatty acids be used for gluconeogenesis?
What effects may folate deficiency have?
Spina bifida in pregnancy. Macrocytic anaemia.
What is the range for BMI to be normal?
How many molecules of ATP are yielded from anaerobic metabolism of 1 glucose molecule?
What is the range for BMI to be overweight?
What is the alanine cycle?
Nitrogen from protein catabolism in muscle is transferred to liver in the form of alanine. The ammonia is transferred to urea for excreted
How many ATPs are net produced by glycolysis?
How does CCK stimulate satiety/fullness?
Via the vagus nerve
How many ATP are produced for each FADH2?
Which hormone does adipocytes release to signal fat storage levels?
Which two substances can activate hormone sensitive lipase?
Glucagon and adrenaline
Which organs express GLUT2?
Liver, pancreas and GIT
Which organ expresses glucokinase?
What does hyperuricaemia cause?
Which cells release glucagon?
Alpha cells of the islets of Langerhans of pancreas
How do we describe a fatty acid when there is a double bond at the third carbon from the end of the hydrocarbon chain?
How much energy is there per mol of NADH?
Which prostaglandin does omega 3 fatty acids promote the formation of?
What causes beriberi disease?
Insufficient VitB1 (thiamine)
Which cells release somatostatin?
Delta cells of the of the islets of Langerhans of the pancreas
What condition is caused by a diet that is severely deficient in protein?
What effect does leptin have on appetite?
Which conditions can fibre prevent?
Diverticulosis and haemorrhoids
What effect does somatostatin have on alpha and beta cells of the pancreas?
Decreases release of their hormones
How many nitrogen atoms are there in urea?
In what part of the cell does the Krebs cycle occur?
What are the main sources of carbon for gluconeogenesis in starvation?
Glycerol and proteins
Which cells express GLUT1?
Which peptide is released by cleavage of pro-insulin (apart from insulin)?
How does the body get rid of nitrogen?
In urea or ammonia
What is the principal sterol synthesized by animals?
Which reaction does phenylalanine hydroxylase catalyse?
Phenylalanine -> tyrosine
What is the precursor for cholesterol synthesis in the liver?
In which organelle is squalene converted to cholesterol?