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Flashcards in Pathology Deck (96):
1

Elevated CRP levels indicates what?

What does CRP stand for?

Acute inflammation

C reactive protein

2

What does Increased eosinophils indicate?

allergy and parasitic infections

3

How is haematocrit calculated? 

volume RBC/volume blood

4

What type of tissue is this?

Q image thumb

Smooth muscle

5

What does haematoxylin bind to? 

Acidic or anionic structures

6

What type of ttissue is this?

Q image thumb

Skeletal muscle

7

What colour does eosin stain? 

Pink/orange

8

What is type III collagen also known as?

Reticulin

9

What is the function of myoepithelial cells?

surround some exocrine glands to squeeze out contents

10

What type of tissue is this?

Q image thumb

Cardiac muscle

11

What is the maximum resolving power of a light microscope and of an electron microscope?

0.2 um

0.2 nm

12

What are  simple squamous epithelia specialised for?

 

Diffusion and protection from abrasion

13

Q image thumb

A = Z disc

B = myosin = thick filament

C = actin = thin filament

D = Sarcomere

14

What type of tissue is this?

Q image thumb

Cardiac muscle

15

In which 4 locations are simple squamous epithelia found?

Endothelium,

mesothelium,

alveoli,

glomerulus

16

What type of tissue is this?

Q image thumb

Cardiac muscle

17

What type of tissue is this?

Q image thumb

Cardiac muscle

18

What are simple columnar epithelia specialised for?

 

 

secretion and absorption

19

Pink on an H and E slide indicates what kind of compound? 

Cationic and eosinophilic

20

Between which 2 layers is the basement membrane found?

Epithelium and underlying connective tissue

21

What type of tissue is this?

Q image thumb

Skeletal muscle

22

What are the 3 types of fibre in connective tissue?

Collagen

Elastin

Reticulin

23

What is the function of  myofibroblasts?

pull together damaged connective tissue to promote wound healing.

24

Blue on an H and E slide indicates what kind of compound? 

Acidic or anionic

25

What is the function of reticulin?

It creates a supportive network for delicate organs such as the liver

26

What is the function of collagen type VII

Links basement membrane to underlying connective tissue

27

What type of collagen is basement membrane predominantly made of?

Type IV collagen

28

List 3 places where type 1 collagen is found

Bone, tendons and ligaments

29

What does eosin bind to? 

Cationic tissue (ie positively charged)

30

A basophilic tissue will have an affinity for which dye? 

Haematoxylin

31

What colour will a basophilic structure stain? 

Blue

32

Where is type II collagen found?

cartilage 

33

What is the function of  desmosomes/adherens junctions between epithelial cells?

Strong mechanical attachments between cells, linking their cytoskeletons

34

What are stratified squamous epithelia specialised for?

protection from abrasion

35

What shape is the nucleus of a fibroblast?

Elongated

36

What is the function of  tight/occluding junctions between epithelial cells?

To seal the intercellular space to prevent passage of substances between cells

37

What type of tissue is this?

Q image thumb

Smooth muscle

38

What type of tissue is this?

Q image thumb

Smooth muscle

39

What is the ECM of connective tissue composed of?

Ground substance and fibres

40

What type of cell is this?

Describe 3 features that support your answer

Q image thumb

Skeletal muscle

Striated

Multi nucleate

Peripheral nuclei

41

What are the 4 main functions of the basement membrane?

1) controls epithelial growth

2) selectively permeable barrier to nutrients

3) structural support

4) links epithelium to underlying tissue

42

What is the funciton of epithelial cilia?

Rhythmic beating for movement of eg mucus out of respiratory tract or ovum along fallopian tube

43

Which vitamin is required for collagen synthesis?

Vitamin C

44

What are stromal cells? 

Supportive cells in an organ

45

What are the histological features of chronic ischaemia?

Fibrosis is seen microscopically only as patchy white areas

46

What are they typical microscopic features of a 1- to 2- day old pale infarct?

Acute inflammation

47

Which three substances mediate vasodilation in inflammation?

Histamine, NO, prostaglandin PGE2

48

What are the functions of histamine in inflammation?

1 Vasodilation

2 Endothelial contraction --> increased permeability of microcirculation

49

Describe the 4 steps in the mechanism of cell wall damage activating inflammation

1 Cell membrane damage activates phospholipase A2

2 Membrane lipids -->  arachadonic acid

3 AA --> PG

4 PG --> leukotrienes 

50

In inflammation, which 3 substances causes an increase in inter-endotheilal gaps?

Histamine, bradykinin and leukotrines

51

Where is histamine derived from?

Mast cells in pre-formed granules

52

 

Describe the arachidonic acid pathway and the action of steroids and NSAIDs

 

 

Cell membrane phospholipids -> arachidonic acid (enzyme: phosphilpase A2; activated by intracellular Ca2+; inhibited by steriods)
AA -> Prostaglandin E2 (enzymes: cyclooxygenase 1 and 2; inhibited by NSAIDs)

 

53

Define abscess 

A localised collection of pus and necrotic tissue surrounded by inflamed tissues

54

Describe the mechanism of exudate formation

1 Vasodilation

2 Increased hydrostative pressure in capillary

3 Increased permeability of capillary wall due to contaction or retraction of endothelial cells

4 Escape of protein- and cell-rich fluid into interstitial comparment

5 Decrease in colloidal osmotic pressure

55

Define eedema.  

Excessive fluid in interstitial compartment or body cavities

56

Define atrophy 

A reduction in tissue or organ size due to decrease in cell size and number and thus decreased metabolic activity

57

A decrease in cell number due to reduced functional demand is termed what?

Involution

58

Define hyperplasia 

Increase in cell number resulting in increased organ size/mass

59

List 5 ways in which necrosis and apoptosis differ

 

                               Necrosis                Apoptosis

Reversibility         Yes, if early               No

Inflammation         Yes                            Minimal

 

Area                        Large                        Small # cells

Cell swelling        Yes                                No

 

Cell membrane    Disrupted                 Intact

 

 

 

60

List the 5 commonest patterns of necrosis

Coagulative

Liquefecation

Casseous

Fat necrosis

Fibrinoid

61

Define hypertrophy 

Increase in cell size, organ size and functional activity

62

Coagulative necrosis is typical of which damage to what type of organs?

Typical of infarction of solid organs (but not brain).

63

A red infarct typically arises from occlusion of what type of circulation?

Dual or collateral

64

In which organs is pale necrosis typically seen?

Seen in brain, heart, spleen and kidneys

65

In which organs is red infarct typically seen?

Lung, bowel and brain

66

Define infarction

area of necrosis caused by acute ischaemia

67

A pale infarct typically arises from occlusion of what type of arteries?

End arteries

68

What are the typical microscopic features of a 1- to 2- week old pale infarct?

 Granulation tissue with macrophages, fibroblasts, lymphocytes

69

Define thrombus

Clotted mass of blood that forms within the cardiovascular system during life

70

What is involution?

A decrease in cell number due to reduced functional demand

71

Define dystrophic calcification and give an example 

 

Abornal calcium depostits dye to damaged or necrotic tissue that has not been completely removed (eg atherosclerotic plaques)

72

What are the histological features of chronic ischaemia?

Fibrosis is seen microscopically only as patchy white areas

73

What are the macroscopic features of a , 1-2 old pale infarct?

Creamy yellow colour.  Often in a wedge shape

74

What type of exudate is typically seen in the skin after a burn?

Serous exudate

75

When do neutrophils begin to appear in a tissue after an infarct?

About 12 hours

76

Which enzyme catalyses arachidonic acid --> 5-HPETE

5-lipoxygenase

77

Where is fibrinous exudate typically seen?

 

Typically seen with membrane-lined cavities such as pleura, pericardium and peritoneum

78

Define granuloma

A group of rounded (epithelioid) macrophages surrounding central caseous necrosis

79

What type of exudate is fypically seen with membrane-lined cavities such as pleura, pericardium and peritoneum?

Fibrinous exudate

80

How long after an infarct is scarring seen macroscopically?

6-8 weeks

81

What type of exudate is typically seen post a bacterial infection?

Suppurative

82

Fibrinous exudate is typically rich in what?

Plasma proteinssuch as fibrin

83

What are 4 preformed mediators in mast cells?

Histamine

Heparin

Tryptase

TNF-alpha

84

What effects does LTC4 cause?

Vasodilation,

diminshed cardiac output,

airway mucous,

airway oedema,

airway smooth muscle shortening

85

What is characterisitically present in suppurative exudate?

Neutrophils

86

The presence of granulation tissue suggests an infarct is how old?

Between 8-10 days and a couple of weeks

87

What histological feature may be a sign of atrophy or just normal wear and tear thus an old cell/tissue

Lipofuschin pigment

88

What type of exudate is most commonly seen in skin post burns

Serous exudate

89

When does atrophy of a tissue become irreversible?

When there is loss of cells and associated fibrosis

90

Marked infiltration with neutrophils suggests an infarcted tissue is how old?

2-3 days

91

What type of exudate is most commonly seen post bacterial infections?

Suppurative

92

What is an example of physiological metaplasia?

Cervical transformational zone during menstruation 

93

How old is a bruise that is bluish-purple or blackish?

What chemicals give this colour?

1-2 days

deoxy and met-Hb

94

What are the cardinal features of inflammation?

Hot. Red. Swollen. Painful. Loss of funciton.

95

How old is a bruise that is greenish or yellowish?

What chemicals give this colour?

5-10 days

Biliverdin

96

How old is a bruise that is yellowish-brown or light brown?

What chemicals give this colour?

10-14 days

Bilirubin