What is the benefit of doing an x-ray early on in osteomyelitis?
Rules out fracture and malignancy
Which cells produce osteoid?
What stimulates PTH release?
Which bone cells does PTH act on directly to increase calcium?
What are the 3 organs that PTH acts on to increase calcium levels?
Bone, kidney and GIT
What type of collagen is in hyaline cartilage?
Where are the 3 places that elastic cartilage is present?
Ear, epiglottis and thyroid cartilage
What are osteocalcin and alkaline phosphatase both markers of?
What are the little tubes that provide nutrients to osteocytes?
What is a displaced fracture?
Edges of fracture are not apposed
What causes a stress fracture?
Repeated low force injury to a normal bone
What are the 4 stages of fracture healing?
Inflammatory Reparative - Soft callus Reparative - Hard callus Remodelling
What are the 2 major processes during the remodelling phase of fracture healing?
Osteoblasts and osteoclasts repopulate the bone Woven bone is remodelled to give lamellar bone
Over what time frame does the hard callus phase of fracture healing occur?
Weeks to months
Over what time frame does the remodelling phase of fracture healing occur?
Months to years
What kind of fracture is most susceptible to infection?
What is the definition of osteoporosis?
Bone mass >2.5 SDs below the mean for healthy young women
What is the definition of osteopaenia?
Bone mass 1-2.5 SDs below the mean for healthy young women
What is the main concern with long term bisphosphonate treatment?
What are the 2 main risks of long term oestrogen therapy for bone health?
Cardiovascular disease and breast cancer
Is sarcopenia inevitable?
What effect does VitD have in the gut?
Increases absorption of Ca and PO4 (phosphate)
What are the 2 major processes during the hard callus phase of fracture healing?
Osteoblasts synthesise osteoid Osteoid becomes mineralised
What class of hormone is VitD?
At what age does muscle mass start to deteriorate?
50 years old
What is the most common form of calcium phosphate in bone?
What is the difference between the actions of PTH and VitD3 in the distal nephron?
PTH causes phosphate excretion, whereas VitD3 promotes phosphate reabsorption
What word means progressive loss of skeletal muscle mass with aging?
What is the motor uni?
An alpha motor neurone and all muscle fibres it supplies
Which protein is abnormal in Becker muscular dystrophy?