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Flashcards in Respiratory Deck (194)
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1

At what vertebral level does the trachea begin?

C6

1

What is a typical tidal volume?

500 ml

1

What is a typical residual volume?

1200ml

1

If the lung is full of fluid, how will vocal resonance sound?

Louder

1

What is the majority of acute epiglottitis caused by?

Haemohpilus influenzae Type B

1

What do we call pus in the pleural space?

Empyema

1

HIgh pH and normal PaCO2 = what?

Metabolic alkalosis

1

Give a 2 word definition of asthma

Reversible bronchoconstriction

 

1

There is chemotaxis of which cell type in the delayed phase of asthma?

Mast cells

Lymphocytes

Eosinophils

Macrophages

Basophils

1

What is a Ghon's complex comprised of?

Gohn focus + lymphadenopathy

1

Which lobe does secondary TB typically affect?

Upper lobe

1

What is Potts disease?

Single organ TB of the spine

1

What level must PaO2 drop below before it has an effect on ventilation?

~50mmHg

1

What information about cough must be obtained during history taking?

Site: throat vs deep chest

Quality: Dry vs wet; colour; thickness; pus; blood

Severity: volume of sputum (teaspoon vs cup)

Time course: duration

Context: Exertion; time of dayl time of year; smoking

Aggravating: 

Relieving: medications

Associated features: pain while coughing

Vaccination Hx

Smoking Hx

1

What is haematemesis?

Vomited up blood

1

In which species is Type A influenza virus found?

Humans and other species

2

Which muscles may be contracted for forceful exhalation

Abdominal and internal intercostal muscles

2

Where does rotavirus replicate?

Rotavirus replicates in epithelial muscosa of GIT

2

What are the most common causes of otitis media?

Pneumococci,

H. influenzae

Moraxella catarrhalis

2

Hiow much oxygen is consumed at rest?

250ml/min

2

Define breathlessness

Pt's recognition of an inappropriate relationship between respiratory work and total body work

2

What is corryza?

Runny nose

4

Name 4 features of airway remodelling in asthma that cause obstruction of the airways

Goblet cell hyperplasia with increased mucous production

Subepithelial collagen thickening

Increased airway smooth muscle volume

Increased mucosal vascularity

4

Define Gohn focus

Gohn focus = peripheral area of granulomatous inflammation and caseation

5

Which 3 factors determine fluid movement across pulmonary capillaries?

1 Hydrostatic pressure

2 Oncotic pressure

3 Capillary permeability

6

Define phlegm

Mucous + cell debris/bacteria/DNA etc 

That is in the body

6

What is a medical way of saying "coughing up blood"

Haemoptysis

7

What is the most common cause of the common cold?

Rhinovirus

8

What influences the peripheral chemoreceptors involved in respiratory regulation?

PaO2, PaCO2, pH

9

What is the double fold of pleura inferior to the hilum called?

Pulmonary ligament