At what vertebral level does the trachea begin?
What is a typical tidal volume?
What is a typical residual volume?
If the lung is full of fluid, how will vocal resonance sound?
What is the majority of acute epiglottitis caused by?
Haemohpilus influenzae Type B
What do we call pus in the pleural space?
HIgh pH and normal PaCO2 = what?
Give a 2 word definition of asthma
There is chemotaxis of which cell type in the delayed phase of asthma?
What is a Ghon's complex comprised of?
Gohn focus + lymphadenopathy
Which lobe does secondary TB typically affect?
What is Potts disease?
Single organ TB of the spine
What level must PaO2 drop below before it has an effect on ventilation?
What information about cough must be obtained during history taking?
Site: throat vs deep chest
Quality: Dry vs wet; colour; thickness; pus; blood
Severity: volume of sputum (teaspoon vs cup)
Time course: duration
Context: Exertion; time of dayl time of year; smoking
Associated features: pain while coughing
What is haematemesis?
Vomited up blood
In which species is Type A influenza virus found?
Humans and other species
Which muscles may be contracted for forceful exhalation
Abdominal and internal intercostal muscles
Where does rotavirus replicate?
Rotavirus replicates in epithelial muscosa of GIT
What are the most common causes of otitis media?
Hiow much oxygen is consumed at rest?
Pt's recognition of an inappropriate relationship between respiratory work and total body work
What is corryza?
Name 4 features of airway remodelling in asthma that cause obstruction of the airways
Goblet cell hyperplasia with increased mucous production
Subepithelial collagen thickening
Increased airway smooth muscle volume
Increased mucosal vascularity
Define Gohn focus
Gohn focus = peripheral area of granulomatous inflammation and caseation
Which 3 factors determine fluid movement across pulmonary capillaries?
1 Hydrostatic pressure
2 Oncotic pressure
3 Capillary permeability
Mucous + cell debris/bacteria/DNA etc
That is in the body
What is a medical way of saying "coughing up blood"
What is the most common cause of the common cold?
What influences the peripheral chemoreceptors involved in respiratory regulation?
PaO2, PaCO2, pH
What is the double fold of pleura inferior to the hilum called?