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Flashcards in Cardiovascular Deck (156)
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1

In what form does Hb carries about 15% of its respiratory carbon dioxide?

carbaminohaemoglobin

 

1

What percentage of respiratory carbon dioxide does Hb carry as carbaminohaemoglobin?

15%

1

Name three factors that can shift the O2 saturation curve to the right

Increased DPG Increased temperature Decreased pH

1

What effect does altitude adaptation have on the O2 saturation curve?

 

Shifts it to the right

 

1

What is a typical EDV?

110 to 120ml (Guyton and Hall, 1996)

1

 

What is a typical cardiac output?

 

 

5-5.25 L/min

 

1

What effects does parasympathetic stimulation of the heart have?

 

Decreased heart rate

 

1

What is APTT

Activated partial thrombin time

1

Identify these valve events

1

What are the 3 layers of a blood vessel?

Intima

Media

Adventitia

1

Which vessels contribute most to blood pressure?

Arterioles

1

Define embolus

Intravascular mass carried in the blood stream to a remote site.  May be solid, liquid or gaseous

1

Define atherosclerosis

Accumulation of lipid and fibrous connective tissue (plaque) in the intima of medium and large arteries

1

Name 4 ways endothelium is implicated in atherosclerosis

  1. Endothelial damage increases permeability to LDL
  2. Damaged endothelium loses its normal anti-coagulant properties
  3. Endothelium recruits macrophages through expression of selectins, ICAM and VCAM
  4. Endothelial cells don't produce as much prostacyclin or NO → impaired vasodilation

1

What is the ligamentum arteriosum a remnant of?

Ductous arteriosus

1

What condition is this?

Aortic regurgitation

2

What does concentric hypertrophy compensate for?

Increased afterload

3

What is the order of the cardio exam?

General inspection. Palmar creases. Capillary refill. Radial pulse. BP. Conjunctiva. Lips and tongue. JVP. Carotid pulse. Palpate apex beat. Auscultation. Lungs. Shin oedema. Dorsal pedis pulse. Posterior tibial pulse.

3

Define eccentric hypertrophy

Normal  relative wall thickness

Increased LV mass

LV enlargement

4

Define concentric hypertrophy

Increased relative wall thickness

Increased LV mass

No LV enlargement

5

Define compliance

ability of any chamber to accept increased volume

6

What are the constitutive subunits of Hb in adults and foetuses?

Adults: 2 alpha and 2 beta Foetuses: 2 alpha and 2 gamma

6

What type of blood vessels are these?

Arterioles

7

What condition is this?

Mitral stenosis

8

What effects does sympathetic stimulation of the heart have?

Increased heart rate and force of contraction

8

What 2 forms may a true aneurysm take?

Sacular (unilateral outpouching) and fusiform (bilateral outpouching)

8

What is the molecular target of heparin?

Heparin enhances activity of antithrombin III, which inhibits factor Xa and thrombin 

9

What percentage of red blood cell dry content does Hb make up?

97%

11

Name 4 outcomes of atherosclerosis that predispose to CV disease

• Stenosis
• Impaired vasodilation
• Unstable plaque
• Local prothrombotic environment

12

What makes up about 97% of red blood cell dry content?

Hb