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Flashcards in Population health Deck (32):
1

What is the aim of intention to treat analysis in a clinical trial?

Reduce selection bias

2

How is rate of a disease development calculated?

(new cases) / (total person time of follow up)

3

How is relative risk calculated?

What does it tell you?

(Risk exposed) / (Risk unexposed)

Re/Ru

indicates the relative magnitude of change in risk/rate of outcome, associated with exposure

4

What is the aim of blinding in a clinical trial?

Reduce information/observor bias

5

How is attributable risk percentage calculated?

What does it tell you?

AR% = (Re - Ru)/Re    x 100

Proportion of incident disease among exposed people that is due to exposure

6

What is the aim of randomisation in a clinical trial?

Reduce influence of confounding variables

7

How is risk calculated?

(Number of new cases in a defined period) / (population at risk)

8

How is attributable risk calculated?

What does it tell you?

(Risk exposed) - (risk unexposed)

Ru-Re

indicates the absolute magnitude of change in risk/rate of outcome, associated with exposure

9

What is the downside of intention to treat analysis in a clinical trial?

Underestimates treatment effect

10

 

How is population atributable risk percentage calculated?

What does it tell you?

 

 

100 x (Rt-Ru)/Rt 

Proportion of incident disease among whole population that is due to exposure.

 

11

How is population attributable risk calculated?

(Rate in whole population) - (Ru)

12

What are the 3 essentail features of a clinical trial?

Randomisation 

Blinding (aka masking) 

Intention-to-treat analysis 

13

What are the 9 Bradford Hill Criteria for causality?

temporal relationship

strength
dose-response relationship
consistency
plausibility
exclude alternatives
experimental evidence
specificity
coherence

14

How is NNT calculated?

1 / (absolute rate/risk reduction)

15

How is sensitivity calculated?

       True positive      

 True pos + False Neg

 

16

How is positive predictive value calculated?

       True positive      

 True pos + False Pos

17

How is specificity calculated?

       True negative      

 True neg + False pos

18

How is negative predictive value calculated?

       True negative      

 True neg + False Neg

19

What are the axes of a receiver operating characteristic curve?

y = sensitivity

x = 1 - specificity

20

What is the main purpose of a meta-analysis?

To increase power

21

What should you consider when wondering if a study is relevant to your patient?

PICOT

Population

Intervention

Comparator

Outcome

Time

22

What are the 4 elements of autonomy in medical ethics?

Freedom to make your own decisions. No coercion No manipulation No deceit

23

What percentage of travellers visiting a developing country will develop a health problem?

50%

24

What is the most common cuase of death in travellers?

Cardiovascular disease

25

Define beneficence in a medical ethics context

Promote health and well-being

26

What are the 5 ethical principles?

Non-maleficence Beneficence Autonomy Justice Dignity (never be a jerk doctor)

27

What is the most common serious medical condition in travellers?

Malaria

28

Define non-maleficence is a medical ethics contect

Do no harm, or minimise harm

29

Which ethical principle is informed consent most important for?

Autonomy

30

Define respect for dignity in a medical ethics context

All people are of equal moral worth

31

What is the most effective public health measure to decrease tobacco usage?

Increasing taxation

32

How is population atributable risk percentage calculated?

What does it tell you?

100 x (Rt-Ru)/Rt  

Proportion of incident disease among whole population that is due to exposure.