Lower Limb Anatomy Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lower Limb Anatomy Deck (290):
1

What is the heaviest bone in the body?

Femur

1

Kicking someone on the medial side of the knee produces what sort of force?

Varus

1

What do we call the space between the malleoli of the distal tibia and fibula?

Mortice

1

What are the 3 muscles of the hamstrings?

Semitendinosis, semimembranosis, biceps femoris

1

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Tibial tuberosity

1

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Extensor hallucis longus

1

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Medial condyle of femur

1

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Iliofemural ligament

1

What is the senosry distribution of the femoral nerve and its branches?

Anteromedial thigh and medial knee, leg and ankle

1

Where does the femoral nerve divide into its terminal branches?

1 inch below the inguinal ligament

1

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Femoral nerve

1

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Femoral nerve

1

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Tibial nerve

1

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Popliteus

1

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Ischial spine

1

In compartment syndrome, how long until muscle will be damaged?

6-8 hours

1

What is the course of the great saphenous vein?

Passes anterior to medial malleolus

Up medial medial leg

Posterior to medial epicondyle at knee

Up medial thigh

Joins femoral vein just below inguinal ligament 

2

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PCL

3

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Attachment of ACL

4

Wuthin which structure does the lumbar plexus form?

Psoas major muscle

4

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Tibial nerve

5

What are the 4 layers of the plantar aponeurosis?

Short intrinsic muscles

Long tendons

Short muscles

Interossei muscles

6

Which muscles does the achilles tendon come from?

Gastrocnemius, soleus and plantaris

6

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Gastrocnemius

6

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Obturator nerve

6

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Patellar ligament

7

Which part of the pelvis bears weight when sitting down?

Ischial tuberosity

7

Which muscles prevent pelvic drop during the swing phase of gait?

Gluteus medius and minimus

8

Where does the centre of gravity pass with reference to the hip?

Behind

8

What attaches to the soleal line of the tibia?

Soleus muscle

8

What is the proper name for the ankle joint?

Talocrural joint

8

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Common fibular (peroneal) nerve from sciatic nerve

8

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Patellar ligament

9

What does the linea aspera split into at its distal end?

Medial and lateral suprcondylar lines

10

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Flexor digitorum longus

10

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Superior fibular retinaculum

10

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Brachii profunda artery

10

Where does the sciatic nerve classically divide into its terminal branches?

2/3 of the way down the thigh at the apex of the popliteal fossa

11

What separates the anterior compartment from the deep posterior compartment of the leg?

Interosseus membrane

13

Which artery does the peroneal artery come from?

Posterior tibial artery

14

Which ligament resists varus forces on the knee?

Lateral collateral ligament

14

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Greater trochanter

15

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Flexor retinaculum

16

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Vastus medialis

17

Which spinal nerve(s) does the obturator nerve come from?

L2,3,4

18

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Anterior superior iliac spine

19

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Extensor hallucis longus

21

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Tibial tuberosity

22

What is the oblique line on the back of the tibia?

Soleal line

23

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Intertrochanteric crest

24

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Tibialis anterior

25

What are the 5 Ps of compartment syndrome?

Pain, pulseless, pale, paraesthesia and paralysis

26

Which 3 ligaments reinforce the hip joint?

Iliofemoral, pubofemoral and ischiofemoral

27

In which position is the ankle less stable?

Plantarflexed

27

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Tibialis posterior

27

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Greater trochanter

27

What is the acronym for remembering the contents of the flexor retinaculum?

Tom, Dick and very naught Harry

28

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Soleal line

28

When does the anterior tibial artery become the dorsalis pedis artery?

After it passess through extensor retinaculum

29

Where does the tibial nerve pass through the ankle?

Behind the medial malleolus

30

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Flexor hallucis longus

31

Which muscles does the deep fibular nerve supply?

Anterior compartment of leg and extensor digitorum brevis

32

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Iliac crest

33

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Superficial fibular (peroneal) nerve from sciatic nerve

34

In what direction does the head of femur face?

Up, medial and forwards

36

Where does the soleus muscle take its origin from?

Soleal line

37

What are the predominant movements of the muscles of the anterior compartment of the thigh?

Extend the knee and flex the hip

37

What shape is the tibial shaft in cross section?

Triangular

38

Which muscle unlocks the knee from extension?

Popliteus

39

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Tibial collateral ligament

39

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Medial plantar nerve

40

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Iliac tuberosity

41

Which muscles flex the hip?

Psoas major and iliacus

43

Why do pregnant or obese people sometimes have pins and needles in their lateral thigh?

Compression of lateral cutaneous nerve of thigh as it passes under inguinal ligament next to ASIS 

44

Nerve?

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Superficial fibular nerve

44

Nerve?

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Deep fibular nerve

45

Which muscles does the tibial nerve supply?

Muscles of posterior leg and sole of foot

46

Which nerve is the nerve of the anterior compartment of the thigh?

Femoral nerve

47

Through what does the sciatic nerve pass to exit the pelvis?

Greater sciatic foramen

48

When is the knee most secure?

In extension

48

Which muscles externally rotate the thigh?

Piriformis, obturator internus, gemelli, quadratus femoris People Often Go Quietly

48

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Tibialis posterior

48

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Tendon of biceps femoris

48

These are branches of which nerve?

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Sural nerve

49

Which joint gives inversion and eversion of the ankle?

Subtalar joint

50

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Tibial collateral ligament

50

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Greater trochanter

51

What are the 3 muscles of the anterior compartment of the leg?

Tibialis anterior Extensor hallucis longus Extensor digitorum longus

51

Is this left or right knee?

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Right

52

Which muscle is key to the neurovascular bundle of the gluteal region?

Piriformis

52

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Sural nerve

53

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Common fibular nerve

53

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Deep fibular nerve

54

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Flexor digitorum longus

55

Which muscle does the achilles tendon belong to?

Soleus

57

Which bone is this?

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Tibia

58

What is the largest sesamoid bone in the body?

Patella

60

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Tibial nerve

61

What demarcates the gluteal region from the thigh on the posterior aspect?

Gluteal fold

62

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Anterior cruciate ligament

63

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Iliohypogastric nerve

64

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Medial sural cutaneous nerve from sciatic nerve

65

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Fibularis longus

67

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PCL

67

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Medial meniscus

69

What is the sensory distribution of the tibial nerve?

Posterior leg and sole of foot

69

What is the cutaneous sensory distribution of the common fibular nerve?

Upper lateral leg via the sural cutaneous nerve

69

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Lateral femoral cutaneous nerve

70

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Lunate surface of acetabulum

71

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Common fibular nerve

72

Which nerve travels between the deep and superficial posterior compartment of the leg?

Tibial nerve

74

Which bone is the red one?

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Pubis

75

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Tibialis anterior

(Timothy has a nasty, dirty toe)

Tib ant

EHL

Ant tib artery

Deep peroneal nerve

EDL

Fibularis tertius

76

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Pes anserinus

77

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Medial condyle of femur

78

Which of the femural condyles is longer?

Medial

79

Which bone is the red one?

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Pubis

80

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Attachment of PCL

82

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Fibularis tertius

(Timothy has a nasty, dirty toe)

Tib ant

EHL

Ant tib artery

Deep peroneal nerve

EDL

Fibularis tertius

84

Which compartment of the leg does the tibial nerve travel in?

Posterior compartment

85

Which two muscles are the main abductors of the hip?

Gluteus medius and gluteus minimus

86

What do we call the large lateral thickening of the fascia lata?

Iliotibial tract

87

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Obturator foramen

88

In compartment syndrome, how long until the nerve will be damaged?

2-4 hours

89

Which muscles does the common fibular nerve proper supply?

None

90

Which muscles does the sciatic nerve proper supply?

Hamstrings except short head of biceps

92

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Sural nerve

94

To which structures does the flexor retinaculum attach?

Calcaneus and medial malleolus of the tibia

95

Which bone does the achilles tendon insert into?

Calcaneus

96

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Tibial collateral ligament

98

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Quadriceps femoris tendon

99

What angle does the neck of femur form?

125 degrees

101

Which side is medial?

Q image thumb

Right side of the picture => =>

102

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Fibularis brevis

103

Which spinal nerve(s) does the lateral cutaneous nerve of thigh come from?

L2,3

105

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Tibialis anterior

106

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Lesser trochanter

107

Which muscles does the femoral nerve supply?

Quadruceps, sartorius and pectineus

109

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Ilioinguinal nerve

109

Which artery does  dorsalis pedis come from?

Anterior tibial artery

110

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Iliotibial tract

111

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Lateral meniscus

112

Which spinal nerve(s) does the genitofemoral nerve come from?

L1,2

114

Where does the patella tendon attach?

Tibial tuberosity

116

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Saphenous nerve

116

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Medial epicondyle of femur

117

Which muscle does profunda femoris give perforating branches through?

Abbductor magnus

119

Which 3 muscles make up the deep posterior compartment of the leg?

Flexor hallucis longus Flexor digitorum longus Tibialis posterior

120

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Greater trochanter

121

What movement does tibialis posterior contribute to?

Eversion of the foot

122

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Extensor digitorum longus

123

What are the 2 main movements of the muscles of the posterior compartment of the thigh?

Extend the hip and flex the knee

124

Which ligament prevents posterior translation of the tibia with reference to the femur?

Posterior cruciate ligament

125

Which muscles make up the superficial posterior compartment of the leg?

Gastrocnemius and soleus

126

What is the primary movement of the muscles of the lateral compartment of the leg?

Eversion of the foot

127

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Extensory digitorum longus

(Timothy has a nasty, dirty toe)

Tib ant

EHL

Ant tib artery

Deep peroneal nerve

EDL

Fibularis tertius

129

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Posterior femoral cutaneous nerve

131

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Cutaneous branch of obturator nerve

132

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Medial patellar retinaculum

134

Which way is anterior?

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Up

135

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Iliofemural ligament

136

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Gastrocnemius

136

Which bone is the yellow one?

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Ilium

137

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ACL

139

What is the lateral collateral ligament also known as?

Fibular collateral ligament

141

Which movements is gluteus maximus responsible for?

Extension and lateral rotation of the hip

141

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Sciatic nerve

143

Which compartment of the thigh does the femoral nerve travel in?

Anterior

144

Which bone is the blue one?

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Ischium

145

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Lesser trochanter

146

Which 3 bones make up the hip ?

Ileum, ischium and pubis

147

Which nerves contribute to the sural nerve?

Tibial nerve and common fibular nerve

148

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Lateral plantar nerve

150

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Pes anserinus

151

How does the posteior tibial artery enter the foot?

Behind the medial malleolus

153

The iliotibial tract is the shared tendon of which two muscles?

Gluteus maximus and tensor fascia lata

154

What is the acronym for remembering the structures that pass through the extensor retinaculum?

Timothy has a nasty dirty toe

155

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Common fibular nerve

157

Which nerve roots contribute to the sacral plexus?

L4-S4

159

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Tibial nerve from sciatic nerve

161

What are the 2 terminal branches of the common fibular nerve?

Deep fibular nerve and superficial fibular nerve

162

What are the two movement of the muscles of the lateral anterior compartment of the leg?

Dorsiflex the foot and extend the toes

163

Which bone is this?

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Femur

165

In which compartment does the posterior tibial artery run in?

Deep posterior of leg

167

What is the predominant movement of the muscles of the lateral compartment of the leg?

Evert the foot

169

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Flexor hallucis longus

170

Where do all 4 of the quadriceps muscles insert into?

Tibial tuberosity

172

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Tibial nerve

173

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Soleus

174

Which ligament resists valgus forces on the knee?

Medial collateral ligament

175

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Obturator nerve

176

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Extensor retinaculum

177

Which artery is in the anterior comparment of the leg?

Anterior tibial artery

179

Kicking someone on the lateral side of the knee produces what sort of force?

Valgus (L=L)

180

What is the cutaneous sensory distribution of the obturator nerve?

Inferomedial thigh (just above knee)

181

In which compartmetn of the thigh does the femoral artery travel?

Anterior

182

When does the external iliac artery become the femoral artery?

After it passes through inguinal ligament

183

Which muscles does the obturator nerve supply?

Adductor muscles and pectineus

184

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Pubofemural ligament

186

Which spinal nerve(s) does the ilioinguinal nerve come from?

L1

188

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ACL

190

What are the 4 muscles of the quadriceps?

Vastus lateralis, medialis, intermedius and rectus femoris

191

Which muscle is used by a soccer player taking a penalty kick?

Rectus femoris

193

Which nerve travels under the cover of the short head of biceps femoris?

Sciatic nerve

194

Which tendon is this?

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Fibularis tertius

195

What are the primary actions of tibialis anterior?

Dorsiflexion and inversion of the foot

196

Nerve?

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Tibial nerve

197

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Vastus lateralis

199

Which muscles does the superficial fibular nerve supply?

Lateral compartment of leg

Fibularis longus and brevis

200

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Ischial spine

202

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Acetabular labrum

203

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Pubic tubercle

204

What are the 3 pairs of structures that give most support to the knee?

Menesci, collateral ligaments and cruciate ligaments

206

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Popliteus

208

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Lesser trochanter

209

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Common fibular (peroneal) nerve

210

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Posterior cruciate ligament

211

Which muscle is used when checking your shoe for dog poo?

Sartorius

213

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Superficial fibular nerve

214

Which bone is the yellow one?

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Ilium

215

Which nerves does the sciatic nerve divide into at its terminal division?

Common fibular nerve and tibial nerve

216

What are the terminal branches of the popliteal artery?

Anterior and posterior tibial arteries

217

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Extensor digitorum longus

218

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Zona orbicularis

219

Which artery does profunda femoris come from?

Femoral artery

220

When does the femoral artery become the popliteal artery?

After it passes through the adductor hiatus (the hole in adductor magnus)

221

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Fibularis longus

222

Which nerves are blocked in a "3 in 1 block"?

Femoral, lateral femoral cutaneous, and obturator nerves

223

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Pubic tubercle

224

Which part of the head of femur does not articulate with the hip?

Fovea

225

Which 2 muscles attach to the soleal line?

Soleus and popliteus

226

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Obturator nerve

227

What do we call the socket for the hip joint?

Acetabulum

229

What is the proper name for the big toe?

Hallux

230

Which way is anterior?

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Bottom of image

231

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Anterior superior iliac spine

232

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Psoas bursa

233

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Tibialis anterior

235

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Lateral patellar retinaculum

236

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Tibial nerve

237

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Fibularis brevis

239

Where does the gluteus maximus arise?

The gluteal surface of the ilium and the posterior sacrum

241

What are the muscle insertions of the pes anserinus?

Say Grace Before Tea Sartorius. Gracilis. Bursa. semi-Tendinosus

242

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Lateral femoral cutaneous nerve

243

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Inferior fibular retinaculum

244

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Popliteus

245

When the tibia is fixed, which direction will the femur rotate for the final 15 degrees of extension?

Medial rotation

246

Which spinal nerve(s) does the iliohypogastricl nerve come from?

L1

247

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Acetabulum

248

What is the cutaneous sensory distribution of the superficial fibular nerve?

The lower lateral leg and dorsum of the foot

249

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Lateral femoral cutaneous nerve

250

Which compartment of the thigh does the obturator nerve travel in?

Medial

251

What are the 2 muscles of the lateral compartment of the leg?

Fibularis longus and fibularis brevis

252

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Anterior inferior iliac spine

253

Which malleolus of the ankle extends further inferiorly?

Lateral

254

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Extensory hallucis longus

(Timothy has a nasty, dirty toe)

Tib ant

EHL

Ant tib artery

Deep peroneal nerve

EDL

Fibularis tertius

255

What are the shock absorbers of the knee?

Menisci

256

What is the longest bone in the body?

Femur

257

Between which layers of the plantar aponeurosis does the neurovascular bundle pass?

1 and 2

258

What is the cutaneous sensory distribution of the deep fibular nerve?

The first toe cleft (between 1st and 2nd toes on dorsum of foot)

259

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Anterior cruciate ligament

260

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Medial malleolus

261

When the femur rotates on the tibia, what do we call this locking in?

Screw home

263

Which bone is the blue one?

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Ischium

264

What is the unhappy triad of knee injuries?

injury to ACL, medial collateral ligament and medial meniscus

265

Which muscle does the femoral artery perforate to get to the posterior knee?

Adductor magnus

266

Which spinal nerve(s) does the femoral nerve come from?

L2,3,4

267

In which compartment of the thigh does the sciatic nerve travel?

Posterior compartment

268

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Lateral condyle of femur

269

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Ischiofemoral ligament

270

Which nerve roots contribute to the sciatic nerve?

L4-S3

271

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Vastus medialis

272

Which bone of the tarsals does the tibia articulate with?

Talus

273

Which is the largest of the tarsal bone?

Calcaneus

274

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Fibularis tertius

275

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Greater trochanter

276

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Soleus

278

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Obturator artery

279

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Lateral meniscus

280

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Obturator crest

281

Which ventral rami typically give rise to the lumbar plexus?

L1-4

282

Nerve?

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Saphenous nerve

283

In full extension of the knee, which ligaments are tight?

All of them

284

Which ligament provides the axis of rotation for the knee?

ACL

285

Where is the popliteal vein formed?

At the knee

286

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Posterior cruciate ligament

287

Which is the largest nerve in the body?

Sciatic nerve

288

What line runs along the back of the femur?

Linea aspera

289

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Genitofemoral nerve

290

Which ligament prevents anterior translation of the tibia with reference to the femur?

Anterior cruciate ligament