Flashcards in He, Chapter 3 Deck (43):
From the Greek for “one sent forth.” Refers to the Twelve chosen by Jesus during the course of his public ministry to be his closest followers, as well as Sts. Matthias, Paul of Tarsus, Barnabas, and the enlighteners of whole nations.
Those Fathers of the Church who were direct disciples of the Apostles and wrote during the end of the first century and at the beginning of the second century.
Term used to describe the lineage of the Catholic bishops and pope through the ages by which each holds office in a direct link to the Twelve Apostles.
The passing on of the Faith of the Apostles to each generation. St. Hippolytus’s work of the same name illustrated this principle by preserving the third-century rites of Ordination, Baptism, and the Eucharist; the Eucharistic Prayer found in The Apostolic Tradition was the basis for the Second Eucharistic Prayer in the Roman Missal.
A consecrated successor to the Apostles, usually charged with the spiritual and administrative care of a given territory or diocese. Derives from the Greek word episkopos (“overseer”). He is constituted a pastor in the Church, to be the teacher of doctrine, the priest of sacred worship, and the minister of governance (CIC 375).
Catechism of the Catholic Church
A summary of the Catholic teaching. A catechism of this same name was published in 1997.
See Ecumenical Council
From the Greek oikoumene, meaning “the whole world.” A formal synod of bishops (sometimes with other ecclesiastics) from the whole inhabited world convened to define doctrine, regulate the Christian life, or apply discipline in the Church. The first ecumenical council was held at Nicæa AD 325.
Fathers of the Church
Refers to a number of Christian writers from the first through the eighth centuries whose lives reflected the teachings of Christ and whose teachings were in perfect harmony with the Church. Their value is in the fact that the doctrine they developed faithfully communicates the Faith they received from Christ and contributed to a deeper spiritual and theological understanding of natural and supernatural truths.
Immunity from error and any possibility of error. The Church possesses this character as promised by Christ, as does the pope as defined by the First Vatican Council (1870).
The dogma that the pope cannot err when speaking ex cathedra (when formally exercising his office as chief shepherd and teacher of all Catholics) and defining a doctrine concerning faith and morals to be held by the whole Church. The term can also refer to the gift of the Holy Spirit to the Church whereby the pastors of the Church—the pope and bishops in union with him—can definitively proclaim a doctrine of faith or morals for the belief of the faithful, with that proclamation being free from all error.
The name given to the universal teaching authority of the pope and the bishops in communion with him, which guides the members of the Church without error in matters of faith and morals through the interpretation of Sacred Scripture and Tradition.
Correctness or soundness in theological faith and beliefs.
From the Latin traditio, meaning “handing down.” Sacred Tradition is part of the Deposit of Faith. It is the Word of God entrusted by Christ to the Apostles and their successors and communicated by preaching and teaching to every generation of Christians under the guidance of the Holy Spirit, who keeps it free from error. Sacred Tradition preceded Sacred Scripture, which grew out of Sacred Tradition with the inspiration of the Holy Spirit. Human traditions or traditions of men are man-made acts and rituals that did not originate with Christ.
See Fathers of the Church
Council of Jerusalem
Recounted in Acts 15, this synod of the Apostles around AD 49 or 50 spoke with the authority of the Holy Spirit in deciding that Gentile converts to Christianity did not have to be circumcised or obey the Law of Moses.
Improper Literal Sense
See Literal Sense
A way of reading literature without regard to the particular literary forms being used. This kind of reading thus recognizes no symbolic language or analogy and instead takes every word, phrase, and sentence as literally true.
Method of scriptural interpretation based on the meaning of words in the literary and historical context. In proper literal sense, the words are understood in their ordinary meaning; in the improper literal sense or metaphorical sense, the words are understood figuratively and symbolically.
Reading a story with full care and regard for the literary forms and styles being used. It allows the reader to fully appreciate the text by understanding what the author is really trying to communicate and thereby reaching the deeper meaning that was originally intended.
Proper Literal Sense
See Literal Sense
The interpretation of Scripture that sees not only the literal meaning of the text but also the people, things, and events they describe as signs. The three kinds of spiritual sense in Scripture are the allegorical sense, the moral sense, and the anagogical sense.
The spiritual interpretation of Scripture that shows how people and events in history suggest future people and events. For instance, the allegorical sense of Abraham sacrificing Isaac is God’s sacrifice of his own son Jesus. Also known as the typical sense, it is a type of spiritual sense.
A prolonged metaphor. Related to parables and fables, it uses a storytelling format rich with symbols to make a statement about a real-life situation. It is a type of improper literal sense.
The spiritual interpretation of Scripture and how events in the scripture point to what will be in Heaven. It is a type of spiritual sense.
A way of understanding by drawing a comparison or likeness and dissimilarity between two things or relationships. Theology is based on reasoning by analogy.
Deposit of Faith
The heritage of faith contained in Sacred Scripture and Sacred Tradition, handed on in the Church from the time of the apostles, from which the Magisterium draws all that it proposes for belief as being divinely revealed.
From the Greek eschaton for "last". A study of the end of time.
A story, often fanciful, that is not based on fact and is used to illustrate a moral lesson, usually with animals or plants as characters. It is one of the improper literal senses of a text.
A literary device that uses exaggeration to make a point. It is one of the improper literal senses of a text.
Making no mistakes or errors. Scripture is inerrant; that is, it always teaches truth, never falsehood.
The gift of the Holy Spirit that assisted human authors to write the books of the Bible. God is the ultimate author of Scripture, and so it teaches faithfully, without error, the saving truth that God has willed to be communicated to us.
Refers to the various styles of writing that communicate a message through particular creative means. Literary forms used in Scripture include the historical, juridical, prophetic, apocalyptic, wisdom literature, poetry, and epistle.
A word or term that refers to another by comparison. It is like a simile, except that it does not use the words like or as in making the comparison. It is one of the improper literal senses of a text.
See literal sense.
The spiritual interpretation of Scripture that portrays the heroes of Scripture as a pattern for Christians of every age. Also called the tropological sense.
A story that is told in order to illustrate a moral or spiritual truth. It is one of the improper literal senses of a text.
Literally “the sense of the faithful,” the term refers to the inerrancy possessed by all the faithful when they share a universal consent in matters of faith and morals.
A word or term that refers to another by comparison using the words like or as. It is one of the improper literal senses of a text.
See Moral Sense
See Allegorical Sense