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61

What does an early immune response to Schistosoma demonstrate

Th1

62

What is the overall immune response to Schistosoma

Th2, eosinophilia, elevated IgE, type 2 granulomas surrounding the eggs

63

What characterized a type 2 granuloma

TH2 cells, eosinophilias, macrophages, and fibroblasts

64

What can the type 2 granulomas caused by blood flukes do the tissue in which they are

they are in the liver, and they can block the liver sinusoids and impede blood flow. this can eventually lead to Cirrhosis

65

What are nematodes

long cylindrical worms with tapered ends, and complete digestive tracts

66

are nematodes dioecious or monoecious

dioecious

67

What are the reproductive strategies of nematodes

1. shed eggs into lumen of the intestine (fecal-oral transmission)
2. shed eggs into the soil (larvae penetrate skin)
3. encyst in muscle tissue (eaten if undercooked)
4. mosquitos

68

Which nematode infection is the most common and which nematode is the largest to infect humans

Ascaris lumbricoides (both most common and largest)

69

where do in Ascaris lumbricoides an endemic

the SE US

70

where do Ascaris lumbricoides reproduce

the small intestine

71

what happens to ingested Ascaris lumbricoides

the larvae enter the blood, go to the lungs, get coughed up and swollowed, mature in intestine

72

What happens when Ascaris lumbridoides migrate through the lung

you get loefflers sydrome = eosinophilic pneumonitis

73

What happens when Ascaris lumbricoides live in the GI

pain, diarrhea, intestinal obstruction

74

what happens when Ascaris lumbricoides live in the pancreatic liver or ducts

it is life threatening

75

What are the problems with Ascaris lumbricoides

the migrating larvae (int - blood - lungs - sto - int)
- potent allergies
- ascaris pneumonia
- asthma
Undernourishment
abdominal pain, eye pain, asthma, insomnia
death (if they block the intestines)
penitration to peritoneum
wandering worms

76

what causes Ascaris lumbricoides to wander

the female wants to burrow in the male, if it can't find one the female begins to borrow

77

Where can Ascaris lumbricoides worms end up

intestines
liver
lungs
in feces
stomatch (puked out)
esophagus, trachea

78

how is a Ascaris lumbrcoides infection diagnosed

barium enema
juveniles in sputum

79

how is an Ascaris lumbricoides infection treated

Mebendazole

80

What is the sceintific name for the whip worm

Thrichuris trichuria

81

What is the cycle of a whip worm infection

eggs to soil to mouth, hatching to adults in intestine, thread through the mucosa

82

How does thrichuris trichuria cause pathologies

due to the worm burden, more than 100 worms

83

What are the problem a whip worm infection can cause

death (if the worm burden is high)
dysentery
anemia
growth retardation
tenesmus
prolapsed rectum

84

What is the second most common nematode infection

hook worms

85

what are the two types of hookworms that infect humans

ancylostoma duodenale
necator americanus

86

what is the infectious life cycle of hookworms

larvae in soil
burrow through skin
carried in blood to heart and lungs
in lungs they burrow in the mucosa and migrate up and get swallowed
in the intestines the attach, feed on blood, mature and mate

87

how is a hookworm infection treated

albendazole

88

how is a hookworm infection prevented

by wearing shoes

89

What is the common name for enterobius vermicularis

the pinworm

90

what is the most common parasitic worm in the US

the pinworm (humans are the only host for the enterobius)