Flashcards in HPHD 1 - Stress, coping, stereotypes, ageing + disability Deck (28):
Describe the biomedical model:
- Illness caused by biological factors
- Mind + body function separately
- Treatment should be drugs/surgery
- Responsibility for treatment lies with health professionals
Describe the biopsychosocial model:
- Illness caused by biological, psychological and social factors
- Treatment should take all factors into account
- Patients and health professionals take joint responsibility for treatment
List some physiological responses to stress:
- Increased O2 availability (^RR)
- Increased cardiac output
- Increased blood pressure
- Sensory awareness
- Liberation of glucose
- Protein breakdown
- Insulin resistance
- Fluid conservation
- Decreased immune response
- Decreased GI function
- Decreased sexual response
How does stress impact negatively on health?
- Physically = ^BP, atherosclerosis, pain, vomiting
- Mentally = extreme thoughts, lack of control/motivation, anxiety, poor judgement
- Immune response = ^ risk of colds/flu/herpes/autoimmune responses
- Unhealthy behaviours = smoking, drinking, bingeing, isolating self
What are the 2 coping styles?
1) Emotion-focused coping
2) Problem-focused coping
Distraction and denial are examples of what type of coping style?
What are the 3 main ways to aid coping with stress?
1) Increase/mobilise social support
2) Increase personal control
3) Preparation for stressful events
How can you increase a patients personal control to aid their coping with stress?
- Pain management
- self-management programmes
- Involve them in care planning
List some barriers to identifying psychological problems in patients:
- Symptoms attributed to illness/treatment
- Patients do not disclose symptoms - fear of stigma, judgement, poor medication
- Doctors do not ask - poor communication skills or lack of time in consultation, or 'not their role'
What conditions can CBT be used to treat?
- Eating disorders
- Sexual dysfunction
- Bipolar disorder
- Monitoring of thoughts/behaviours
- Challenging negative thoughts
- Rehearsal of coping strategies
- Graded exposure to feared situations
- Activity scheduling
What type of psychological treatment may be useful to someone with poor mental health due to painful previous experiences, with an interest in self-exploration?
What type of psychological treatment may be useful to someone with schizophrenia who can articulate their problems and are seeking solutions?
What type of psychological treatment may be useful to someone with subclinical anxiety/depression?
Systemic +/- family therapy
What are the advantages of forming stereotypes?
- Reduces processing time
- Allows predictability
- Avoids information overload
Widely held, fixed and oversimplified idea of a particular type of person/thing
Preconcieved opinion not based on reason or experience
Prejudicial treatment of different categories of people
When are we more likely to rely on stereotypes?
- Under time pressure
- Suffering information overload
- In unfamiliar circumstances
How can we avoid reliance on stereotypes?
- Get to know members of different groups
Better cognition in later life is associated with which lifestyle factors?
- Good education
- Good nutrition
- Not smoking
- Social interaction
Describe Erikson's life stages and their associated conflicts:
Young - intimacy vs isolation
Mid-Adult - generation vs stagnation
Old-Age - integrity vs despair
What are the 3 models of successful ageing?
- Continuity model
- Disengagement model
- Activity model
What is the disengagement model of ageing?
Most successful ageing occurs when you disengage from your previous role in younger life = accept change in social role and relationships
What is the activity model of ageing?
Most successful ageing occurs when you complete engaging, fulfilling work
What is the continuity model of ageing?
Most successful ageing occurs when you continue habits, preferences and relationships
What is the difference between the medical and social models of disability?
Medical model = Disability due to mental or physical impairment which negatively impacts normal activity
Social model = Disability is due to the way society is organised