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Flashcards in Infection Control (complete) Deck (64)
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31

what is non-ionizing radiation used for

disinfecting air, transparent fluids, and surfaces of objects

32

How does contact time affect disinfection

longer time = more effective

33

how is disinfection affected by Temperature

hotter = more effective

34

how is disinfection affected by pH

dependent on each chemical

35

how is disinfection affected by Bioburden

more microbes = need a longer time

36

how is disinfection affected by Extraneous matter

organic matter inhibits many disinfectants

37

how is disinfection affected by proper exposure

it insures the agent gets in

38

how is disinfection affected by disinfectant concentration

higher = better, with alcohols as the exception

39

List these from least to most resistant to disinfection
spores
fungi
mycobacteria
non-enveloped viruses
enveloped viruses
gram positive bacteria
gram negative bacteria
prions

envelopped viruses and gram positive bacteria
fungi and gram negative bacteria
non-enveloped viruses
spores and mycobacteria
prions

40

What are the characteristics in the disinfectants with phenol (phenolics)

- intermediate to low level disinfectants
- Denatures proteins and disrupt cell membranes
- remain active for a long time
- ineffective against many naked viruses

41

What are the characteristics of alcoholic disinfectants

- intermediate level disinfectants
- denature proteins and disrupt cytoplasmic membranes
- evaporate rapidly
- good surface disenfectants
- no activity on spores

42

do alcohols have activity against spores

nope

43

do isopropyl alcohol inactivate naked viruses

nope

44

What are the characteristics of halogen disinfectants

intermediate-level antimicrobial chemicals
damage via oxidation, or denaturing proteins
iodine tablets, iodophors, chlorine, bromine

45

What easily inactivates halogen disinfectants

organic material

46

What are the characteristics of oxidizing agents as disinfectants

high-level disinfectants
kill via oxidation
hydrogen peroxide, ozone, peracetic acid

47

what is peracetic acid particularly effective against

spores, used to sterilize equipment

48

What are the characteristics of surfactants as disinfectants

reduce surface tension of solvents to make them better at dissolving solutes
soaps, detergents, and quats

49

Where are quats used, and what type of disinfectant are they

they are surfactants, and they are used in medical, food, and industrial applications

50

What are the characteristics of heavy metals as disinfectants

alter the 3-D shape of proteins
low level bacteriostatic and fungistic agents
1% silver nitrate used to prevent blindness (gonorrhea)
copper used to control algal growth

51

What are the characteristics of aldehydes as disinfectants

cross link groups to denature proteins and inactivate nucleic acids
glutaraldehyde both disinfects, and sterillizes (long exposure)
formalin used in embalming and disinfection

52

What are the characteristics of gaseus agents as disinfectants

denature proteins by cross linking functional groups
used in hospitals and dental offices
can be hazardous, carcinogenic, poisonous, and flammable

53

Does cellulose in paper towels inactivate iodophores

Yes

54

Does the glutaraldehyde used in hospitals do a good job of killing HPV

nope

55

What kind of filters are used to filter microbes out of the air

HEPA filters

56

What is the air sampling device that mirrors the human respiratory system

the Anderson sampler

57

how long can airborne microbes stay in the air

hours

58

What type of handwash seems to be the best and killing microbes

chlorhexidine

59

What are HAI's

Hospital acquired infections

60

what is the best disinfectant for countertops

70-80% ethanol