Flashcards in Italy Deck (62):
What are the acronyms for Italian PDO wines, what do they mean and what conditions are attached?
DOC - Denominazione di Origine Controllata
Subject to; Geographical boundaries, Limits on grape varieties and rules on production methods.
DOCG - Denominazione di Origine Controllata e Garantita
As above plus Must be bottled in area of prodn and subject to Min Ag tasting
What are Italian Classico wines?
Give an example
Wines made solely from the ORIGINAL, not expanded, land.
Soave from the plains
Soave Classico from the hillsides
What does 'Riserva' on an Italian wine mean?
Wine with both higher alc and longer ageing than the minimum for the appelation
What is the ageing requirement for Chianti Gran Selezione
Chianti Gran Selezione 30 months, oak optional but usual
What are the ageing requirements for
Vino Nobile di Montepulciano
Brunello di Montalcino
Vino Nobile di Montepulciano Min 2 years
Brunello di Montalcino 5 years, 2 in oak
What are the ageing conditions for:
Barbaresco. 2 yrs,
Generally, what is the climate of Northern Italy?
What role do the Alps play?
What is the influence of rivers e.g. River Po and lakes e.g. Lake Garda?
What happens in areas nearer the sea and name one risk
Moderate climate with dry, short, summers
The Alps provide a Northern barrier providing shelter from Northerly rain
Rivers and glacial lakes give a moderating influence to hotter inland areas
Nearer the sea, higher rainfall increasing the risk of fungal disease = more spraying
In Northern Italy how were grapes traditionally trained and, increasingly, how are they trained now?
What is a major benefit of this change?
Traditionally - high yield vines planted with low density.
Pergola, vine canopy with grapes hanging down = good airflow = less rot and shade against grape sunburn. Still used for high acid, low sugar grapes e.g. For sparkling wine.
Modern - VSP training allows higher density but fewer grapes per vine = better quality grapes. Overall increased prodn per hectare
What are the characteristics of Pinot Grigio
On the plains?
@ Altitude - dry, light to med body, hi acid, citrus and green fruit
On the plains - Med body, med acid with ripe stone fruit flavours
Pinot Grigio is key in which 6 regions?
Alto Adige, Trentino, Friulli-Venezia Giulia, Collio, Colli Oriental and Veneto.
Where is Gargenega, primarily, grown?
Gargenega = Soave
What is Trebbiano like and what is it used for?
High yield grape, usually simple and fruity for IGT wines
What are IGT wines?
PGI wines of Italy
IGT = Indicazione Geographica Tipica
Where is Chardonnay largely grown, in Northern Italy, and what is it used for?
Largely grown on Veneto plains and used in IGT wines
What is Cortese, what does it taste like and where is it, predominantly used?
White grape, high acidity, floral, pale, light, body with aromas citrus, green apple and pear.
Mainly used in Gavi
What is Nebbiolo, what does it taste like and where is it mainly used?
Black grape, high acidity and tannin but light colour.
At altitude it has aromas of sour cherries, roses, herbs and dried flowers. With age develops Tar, truffle and leather
Used in Barolo and Barbaresco
What is Barbera, what's it like and where is it mainly used?
Black grape, similar to Nebbiolo but lower tannin and higher acidity.),
Aromas of red cherries, plums and sometimes black pepper. Can be youthful and fruity or barrel aged for spicy flavours.
Mainly Barbera d'Alba DOC and the higher quality Barbera d'Asti DOCG
What is Dolcetto like and where is it mainly used?
Black grape, likes cooler sites. Deep colour, high tannin (double t in its name!), med acidity. Aromas black plums, red cherries and dried herbs. Drunk young or aged
Mainly used Dolcetta d'Alba DOC
What is Corvina like and where is it mainly used?
Black grape, thin skin, moderate colour, low~med tannin with hi acidity (more at altitude) giving red cherry flavour.
Mainly used in Valpolicella
Which is Italy's most northerly wine region and what is mainly produced there?
Aromatic whites mainly from Pinot Grigio but also Gewürztraminer, Chardonnay and Pinot Blanc
Where is Trentino DOC, where are vines planted and what is mainly grown there?
Just south of Alto Adige
Vines on both slopes and valley floor
Mainly Pinot Grigio plus some Chardonnay
Where is Friuli - Venezia Giulia, what is the climate like and what grapes are mainly grown there and what is the style like?
NE corner of Italy, stretches from foothills of Alps to near the Adriatic coast.
Near the Alps - Moderate continental, cooled by mountain air
Nearer the coast - Warm Maritime
Mainly Pinot Grigio - med to full body, juicy peach.
Also some Merlot
What are the DOCs of Friuli - Venezia Giulia and what is the style of wine from each?
Friuli Grave DOC - wines from the plain, white, simple, fruity
Collio DOC and Colli Orientali DOC - Hills, more concentrated whites
What are the WSET regions of Northern Italy? 5
Where is Veneto?
What are its two most famous appellations?
What else does it produce
NE Italy, from S end of Lake Garda to Venice in the east
Soave and Valpolicella
Also produces bulk wines from Pinot Grigio, chardonnay, merlot, corvina, gargenega and trebbiano labelled as Veneto IGT
What is the main grape grown in Soave?
What is sweet Soave called?
Recioto di Soave DOCG
What is the main grape grown in Valpolicella?
How is the wine labelled
What is sweet Valpolicella called?
Hills - Valpolicella Classico / Plain - Valpolicella
Recioto Della Valpolicella DOCG
What is Passito and what is the most famous wine made from it in Valpolicella?
There's also a sweet wine made using the same method, what's that called?
A process whereby grapes picked early when still have high acidity, dried indoors to concentrate colour, sugars and flavour
Most famous - Amarone Della Valpolicella
Sweet - Recioto Della Valpolicella DOCG
What is the style of Amarone Della Valpolicella?
Dry or off dry, full body, hi alc, med~hi tannin
Intense with concentrated red berry and spice.
Aged in large oak
Literally meaning 're-passed' wine is racked off almost fermented Amarone leaving the skins. The skins are added to a vat of Valpolicella that's already finished fermenting. The traces of yeast on the Amarone skins re-start fermentation and the skins give off more colour, flavour and tannin.
The finished wine has a med~full body, med to hi tannin with flavours of stewed cherries and plums and is labelled Valpolicella Ripasso DOC
Where is Piemont, what is the climate like and what are potential climatic risks?
What are the predominant grapes and at what altitude are the grapes grown?
NW Italy with mountains to the north providing a 'shadow' giving protection from northerly rain and winds.
Climate is moderate continental with long cold winters and summers with a risk of thunderstorms, hail and fog
Grapes are Nebbiolo, Barbera and Dolcetto.
What grape is used to make Barbaresco?
What grapes are mainly grown in Asti and Alba and what are the wines produced?
Barbera and Dolcetto
Barbera d'Alba DOC and the higher quality Barbera d'Asti DOCG
Dolcetto d'Alba DOC
Where is Gavi, what is made there and what grape is used?
Located SE Piemont
White wine region with wines made from Cortese grape
Normally fermented protectively in S. Steel.
What are the WSET regions of Central Italy? 5
Tuscany, Umbria, Lazio, Marche and Abruzzo
Where is 'Central Italy' and what is the climate?
Centre of Italy, either side of the Apennines with plantings in hills and valleys of mountain ranges, cooled by altitude and sea breezes
Tuscany is roughly divided into 3 parts, what are they?
Mountainous Chianti in the north
Hills and valleys in the south
Flat coastal plain
What is the primary grape of Tuscany?
What are its characteristics?
Late ripening, needs warmth, high acidity and tannin, red cherries and plums.
Usually oak aged to soften tannins and add spicy flavours
Which sub zone does Chianti Classico come from?
Where is it? Hong long must the wines be aged for?
Chianti Classico is its own specific zone so does not come from the other sub zones.
The vineyards are at higher altitude so = slower ripening giving wines with greater acidity.
Min 12 months ageing
Chianti Classico Riserva must be aged min 24 months of which at least 3 in oak.
What is Chianti Gran Selezione?
The highest designation of Chianti Classico.
Grapes must from a single estate and aged 30 months.
Oak optional but usually used
What is the climate like in Southern Tuscany and what are the two prime wines produced?
Lower altitude so warmer but with cool maritime breezes
Brunello di Montalcino DOCG - 100% Sangiovese
Vino Nobile di Montepulciano DOCG - Blend Sangiovese and others
What are declassified Brunello di Montalcino DOCG
And Vino Nobile di Montepulciano DOCG called and why might they be declassified?
Rosso di Montalcino and
Rosso di Montepulciano
De classified in poor years or if young vines
Where were 'Super Tuscan' wines born, what is the climate, what is the main DOC and what grapes can be used?
Flat but cooled by sea breezes
Bolgheri permits many non Italian grapes but most are based on Sangiovese
What is the main wine produced in Umbria and from what grapes?
Mainly Orvieto DOC - light white, med~hi acid, flavours of ripe grapefruit and peach
A blend of Grechetto and Trebbiano, better wine have more Greschetto
What is the main wine produced in Lazio, what grapes are used to make it?
Frascati DOC - fresh unoaked, med body, med~hi acid, citrus fruit and blossom.
Blend Malvasia and Trebbiano
Where is Marche, what is produced there and what is the best known DOC?
East side of Apennines
Verdicchio grape - Hi acid, green apples, lemons and sometimes fennel and almonds
Verdicchio die Castelli di Jesi DOC
Where is Abruzzo, what grape is predominant, what's it like and what is the best known DOC?
South of Marche
Montepulciano grape - Hi colour and tannin, med acid, black plum and cherry.
What is the climate of Southern Italy, where are vines planted?
Hot and dry inland and humid by the coast.
Many vineyards on slopes of Apennines giving some altitude cooling, there are also sea breezes on the Puglia peninsula
What is the topography of Campania?
Mountains, valleys and a coastal plain
What are the predominant white grapes of Campania?
Fiano - Med acid, med~full body, stone fruit, melon and mango
Greco - High acidity, lean, green apple, stone fruit and passion fruit
Fiano di Avelino DOCG
Greco di Tufo DOCG
What is the predominant black grape of Campania, what is it like and what is the main DOCG?
Aglianico, deep colour, hi acid and tannin. Black fruit and oak
Where are most DOCGs in Southern Italy?
What is the topography of Basilicata
What is the name of the local volcano
Very mountainous to 900 metres
Aglianico del Vulture DOC
What is the climate like in Puglia?
Hot but with sea breeze cooling on the Puglia peninsula
What are the key black grapes of Puglia, what are they like and what is produced with them?
Negroamaro - med tannin and acidity, hi alc, baked red and black fruit.
Primitivo (Zinfandel) - med tannin and acidity, hi alc, very ripe berry fruit.
Salice Salentino DOC
What is the main Italian grape grown in Sicily, what is it like and what is made from it?
Also what are the leading International black and white grapes grown?
Nero d'Avola - med to full body, med acid and tannin, plum and black cherry. Fruity for early drinking but can be more complex.
IGT Terre di Sicilia / Terre Siciliane
If lower yields = Sicilia DOC
Syrah and Chardonnay
XXXXXX del Vulture
Aglianico del Vulture DOC
Two leading black grapes of Puglia?
Best DOC from Puglia made from Negroamaro?
Salice Salentino DOC
What are the two black grapes of Etna DOC?
Nerello Mascalese and Nerello Cappucio
Best red wine DOCG of Umbria?
Sagrantino di Montefalco DOCG