Flashcards in Sparkling Wines Deck (80):
What is the French name for the dosage used in making Champagne?
Actually the amount of Sugar is the 'dosage'
When pressing grapes the first juice is the best, what is it called?
What is the rest of the juice called
First juice is the Cuvée
Then the remainder is called Taille
What are the 6 'simple' steps to making a Traditional Method sparkling wine?
Alcoholic fermentation, bottling, second fermentation, ageing, disgorgement, dosage
With which 2 sparkling wine production methods can you have yeasty, autolysis, flavours?
What are the 4 Cs of Traditional Method sparkling wine production?
Method Cap Classique
In what state are ideal grapes for sparkling wine and why?
Hi acidity and low sugar but ripe
First ferment target is just 10~11% abv as 2nd will add 1.2~1.3%
Sparkling wines are meant to be made in a zingy refreshing style
Why are the best grapes for sparkling wine picked in whole bunches?
Avoid colour and tannin being imparted into the juice. (mechanical harvesting shakes grapes off a vine, and breaks skins).
What is the style of the base wine after its first fermentation?
MLF may be allowed or prevented
The base wine might be lightly oaked
Give three reasons why blending is so important with sparkling wines
1. To make a consistent 'House' style considering grapes from different vineyards, different vintages
2. To improve balance e.g. Chardonnay adds Citrus whilst Pinot Noir adds body and subtle red fruit flavours
3. To add complexity e.g. Old reserve wines might bring dried fruit. Some matured in oak would bring toast and spice
What are the 5 ingredients of Liqueur de Tirage?
When is it used?
Wine, sugar, yeast, yeast nutrients, clarifying agent
Mixed with base wine to start the 2nd fermentation
What is 'Riddling' and what is the machine that does the job nowadays?
Slowly inverting the bottle after second fermentation to make the yeast sink to the neck of the bottle.
Gyroplattes - can hold 500 bottles
At what stages might blending be done in making Sparkling wine?
After the base wine is made various parcels are blended before starting 2nd fermentation
At the stage of adding Liqueur d'expedition the wine used can adjust the flavours of the final wine
What is Liqueur d'expedition made from?
Wine and sugar
How is 'Traditional Method' shown on bottles?
How are some producers helping retailers and drinkers know the age of Champagne?
Some are showing 'Disgorgement' dates on the bottle
What are the 5 ways to make sparkling wine?
Why is the 'Asti' Method unusual?
There is only one fermentation
With which sparkling wine production methods can you get autolysis flavours?
What is the main difference between Traditional and Transfer methods of sparkling wine production?
With Transfer method, after 2nd fermentation and lees ageing the bottles are disgorged into a sealed tank under pressure.
The wine is then filtered, Liqueur d'expedition is added then the wine is finally bottled
Why might producers choose the Tank Method to make sparkling wine?
It's cheaper but primarily, because it doesn't add autolytic flavours, the process retains primary fruit flavours
With the Tank Method of Sparkling wine production, where does 2nd fermentation take place?
In a pressurised tank
What grape is used to make Asti?
Muscat Blanc a Petits Grains
Which grape variety would be ideally suited to Carbonation?
An aromatic such as Sauvignon Blanc
Using the French terms list Sparkling wine sweetness from driest to sweetest
How much sugar is in the dosage for Brut Nature Sparlking wines?
No sugar can be added but residual sugar up to 3G/L is permitted
How much residual sugar is permitted in Demi-Sec Sparkling wine?
Define 'non vintage' sparkling wine
Grapes harvested in more than one vintage (and made in the House style
- Wine from other countries
Champagne - 100% grapes must come from a single year
Other countries - Most grapes must come from a single year but a small % from other years is permitted
How can Rosé sparkling wines be made?
Blending red and white base wines - even permitted in Champagne
Short maceration (some countries only allow short maceration)
* Colour can be adjusted at final liqueur d'expedition stage
What is 'Prestige Cuvee'?
Not an official labelling term but sometimes used by producers to denote their flagship offering
What are the 3 descriptors for a sparkling wine's mousse?
What flavours are associated with autolysis?
Biscuit, Bread, Toast, Pastry, Brioche, Bread Dough, Cheese
What are the minimum ageing times for non vintage Champagne
- In total?
- On the lees?
Total 15 months
12 months on the lees
What are the minimum ageing times for vintage Champagne
- In total?
- On the lees?
Total 36 months
12 months on the lees
What is the minimum lees ageing time for Cremant, Saumur, Vouvray and Cava?
What are the minimum ageing times for Asti and Prosecco?
None, they are both made to be drunk fresh as soon as possible after making
What is the minimum lees ageing time for South African Method Cap Classique sparkling wine?
What ageing does the Cap Classique Producers Assn recommend?
Minimum 9 months to be able to call the wine 'Cap Classique'
What are the 5 Champagne grape growing regions and what does each, primarily, grow?
Montagne de Reims. Pinot Noir
Vale de la Marne. Pinot Meunière
Côte des Blancs. Chardonnay
Côte de Sezanne. Chardonnay
Côte des Bar. Pinot Noir
In Champagne which are the two growing regions for Chardonnay?
Côte de Blancs and Côte de Sezanne
In Champagne which are the two growing regions for Pinot Noir?
Montagne de Reims and Côte des Bar
Where, in Champagne, is Pinot Meunière largely grown?
Valée de la Marne
To what is Cru status given in Champagne?
What additional production requirements are there for Cru villages?
What does Chardonnay bring to Champagne?
Hi acidity, floral and citrus fruit flavours
What does Pinot Noir bring to Champagne?
Greater body, structural backbone and some red fruit flavours
What does Pinot Meunière bring to Champagne?
Brings fruit flavours
What is the climate in Champagne?
What is the predominant soil?
What are the main climactic hazards?
How are the hazards best managed?
Winter Freeze, Spring Frosts. Plant on S facing slopes
Rainy, cloudy weather. Chalk drains excess water well
What are Human factors in wine making?
What are the natural factors in Grape growing?
Soil / Aspect
Summarise the major differences between
Blanc de Blancs and Blanc de Noirs
B de B 100% Chardonnay, light~med body with citrus notes
B de N, 100% Pinot N and M, Fuller body with more red fruit flavours
What are the 3 main Cremants?
Cremant de Bourgogne
Cremant de Loire
Cremant sparkling wines are usually made with the predominant grapes for the region, what is the exception?
Cremant d'Alsace in that it cannot be made from Gewürztraminer or Muscat but Chardonnay can be used
Which two regions are 2nd only to Champagne in volume of Sparkling wine production?
Saumur and Vouvray
What grapes are used in the best sparkling Saumur?
Chardonnay, Chenin Blanc and Cabernet Franc
Which grape is most Vouvray made from?
Where is most Cava produced?
Catalonia, around Penedes.
What grapes are used to make Cava?
White - Macebao (Viura), Xarel-lo, Parellada and Chardonnay
Black - Garnacha, Monastrell and Pinot Noir
Describe an 'average' Cava
Dry, medium acidity with som autolytic character
Outside the main region, where else can Cava be made?
Rioja, Navarra and Valencia
Sweet, low abv (7%) grapey, fruity, peachy and floral
Where is Asti made?
Piemonte, NW Italy
Where is Prosecco DOC made?
NE Italy around Veneto and Friuli
Where is Prosecco DOCG made?
What is the terrain and soil like?
NW of Venice
From grapes grown between the towns of
Conegliano and Valdobbiadene
Steep limestone hills
What are the two most exceptional vineyard sites in Conegliano-Valdobbiadene?
Cartizze and Rive
What grape is used to make Prosecco?
What does Prosecco taste like?
Medium acidity, fresh Green Apples, Pears and Melon
What's the difference between Sekt and Deutscher Sekt?
Sekt - Made sparkling in Germany from base wines imported from France and Italy.
Deutscher Sekt - Made only from grapes grown in Germany
What grape are the best Deutscher Sekts made from?
If all the grapes come from one quality region how may Deutscher Sekt be labelled?
Deutscher Sekt bA
Which 3 regions, in Australia, produce the best sparkling wines and why?
How are they usually made and from which grapes?
Yarra Valley, Adelaide Hills and Tasmania
Because the climate is cool or moderate
Normally made using the Traditional Method
Chardonnay & Pinot Noir
The wines are Complex and elegant
In Australia what is red sparkling made from and what production would usually be used?
What does it taste like?
Shiraz is best but also made from Cab Sav and Merlot
Usually made by Transfer or Traditional Methods
Full body, Red berry flavours, smooth tannins with some residual sugar
How are bulk sparkling wines usually made in Australia?
Carbonation or Tank Method
List 3 countries that might use the Tank Method for sparkling wine production
Italy - Prosecco
Germany - Sekt
Australia - Bulk sparkling wines
USA - Bulk Sparkling wines
What is the South African term for the Traditional Method of making sparkling wine?
Méthod Cap Classique
Where do the best grapes come from to make Méthod Cap Classique wines?
What grapes are usually used?
The Western Cape with the best grapes being from Hillside slopes (SE facing i.e. Away from the sun) or near the coast
Chardonnay and Pinot Noir
Why does New Zealand have a reputation for high quality sparkling wines?
How are the good ones made and from which grapes?
Due to Southern latitude, long sunshine hours, Maritime climate giving cool sea breezes the grapes ripen slowly whilst developing concentrated flavours.
Chardonnay and Pinot Noir
Where is most New Zealand sparkling wine made?
What are the differences in the Sparkling wines made in New Zealand's North and South Islands?
North - Richer style
South - Leaner with higher acidity
What Method is used for the best American sparkling wines?
Where are the best locations and why?
What grapes are most used?
Best made using the Traditional Method
Los Carneros AVA and Anderson Valley AVA because they are cooler locations allowing slower ripening and grapes to picked at the ideal ripeness.
Chardonnay and Pinot Noir
How are bulk sparkling wines made in USA?
Usually Tank or Carbonation