Port And Fortified Muscats Flashcards Preview

WSET L3 GJR 2018 > Port And Fortified Muscats > Flashcards

Flashcards in Port And Fortified Muscats Deck (55):

Which are the two towns of the Portuguese Port trade situated, on the coast, North and South of the mouth of the River Douro?

Villa Nova de Gaia


Working West to East name the three subregions of Port vineyards

Baixo Corgo
Cima Corgo
Douro Superior


Which of Ports subregions produces the lightest wines and why?

Baixo Corgo because it is most westerly and receives some coastal influence


In which of Ports subregions are most vineyards located?

Cima Corgo


Describe the Douro Superior subregion and what it produces

The hottest and most easterly of the subregions
Sparsely planted but produces top quality wine


What is the climate of Port?

Warm Continental
Shielded from Atlantic winds by Serra do Marão


What are the climate risks in the Port Region?

Some frosts in Spring
Heavy rain can disrupt flowering and harvest
Summer temps can be V. High
Rainfall low


What is the soil on the Port subregions and how does it help vines?

Shist bedrock, fractures vertically helping vine roots to dig down deep to water reserves


What is the topography of the Port subregions and how can Vine growers make the most of it?

Quite extreme
Baixo Corgo and Baixo Cima Planted on steep slopes
Temp diff bottom to top - altitude
Some N face slopes used as face away from hot sun


Name the 3 types of terracing used, list pros and cons

Socalcos - Trad, supported stone walls, no mechanisation
Patamares - Newer type, no walls, allows tractor access
Vinho ao Alto - Unterraced, allows mechanisation but can only be used on gentle slopes


Two types of terracing in Port region face a potential risk.
What is the risk and which are the terracing types?

Soil erosion dud to no retaining walls
Patamares and Vinho ao Alto


What is the criteria for a Port grape?
List the 5 varieties used

Thick skinned, High tannin, Black fruit and floral notes
Touriga Franca, Touriga Nacional
Tinta Roriz, Tinta Baroca, Tinta Cão


Describe a quality Tawny Port

Pale tawny in colour, high in alcohol, sweet, walnut, coffee, chocolate


What is the grape Tinta Roriz otherwise known as?
Which of the Port grapes is similar to Grenache?

Tinta Baroca


From lowest to highest what is the correct order of price, for these different Port styles?
Vintage Port
Reserve Tawny

Ruby, Reserve Tawny, Late Bottle Vintage Port, Vintage Port


At what abv is Port fermentation stopped by the addition of spirit?

5~9% abv


What 4 key steps for the production of Vintage Port?

Rapid extraction of colour
Alcoholic fermentation


Why is rapid extraction so important in making Port?

Fermentation V. Short, 24~36hrs because fortified with grape spirit when just 5~9% abv


What are troughs used for foot treading called?



Name the three methods used to rapidly extract colour and tannins from Port grapes

Foot Treading
Piston plungers and robotic lagares


Which mechanical extraction system is considered most like traditional Foot Treading?

Piston plungers and Robotic lagares


Briefly summarise how an autovinifier works

Crushed grapes in sealed vat
Ferment pressure forces wine into holding tank
Pressure reached, wine floods back down over cap
Process repeats every 15~20 mins


What is the name of the spirit used to fortify Port?
What is its maximum permitted strength?
What abv range is Port fortified to?
Approx what % of a bottle of Port is this spirit?

77% abv
19%~22% depending on house style
20% of total


Where is Port wine often sent to and why?

Sent to Villa Nova de Gaia because the cooler coast allows slower maturation


Traditionally which Port style might be matured in the Douro and why?

Tawny Port because they are oxidatively aged so heat is a benefit


In what is Port matured?

Small~large Oak vessels
S. Steel also used now


What is the style of Ruby, Reserve Ruby, LBV and vintage Ports and how are they aged?

Deeply coloured with primary fruit flavours avoiding oxygen
Aged in large Oak vessels or S. Steel for a relatively short period


What is the style of a bottle aged Vintage (and some LBV) Port?

Garnet colour with tertiary cooked fruit, and vegetal (prune, leather and wet leaves) flavours


How and in what is a True Tawny Port aged?

Long oxidative ageing in barrels called 'Pipes'


Give simple tasting notes for a 'true' Tawny Port

Tawny colour (maybe brown if really old), raisiny, with flavours of walnuts, coffee, chocolate and caramel


Which types of Port can be labelled 'Reserva / Reserva' and how is it decided to apply the term?

Can be applied to both Ruby and Tawny Ports that are of a higher quality.
Determined by an official tasting panel
A Reserve Tawny must be wood aged for min 6 years


What is LBV Port?

Late Bottled Vintage Port
Aged 4~6 yrs before bottling
Usually fined and filtered
Ready to drink on release


What is 'Tawny with an indication of age' Port?

Long oxidative ageing in Pipes
Labelled 10, 20, 30, 40 years old
Age is the average age of the wine in the bottle
Label must state year of bottling as lose freshness soon after
Finest of all Tawny Ports


What is 'Vintage' Port?

The most concentrated and tannic of Ports
Usually a producers flagship Port
Only produced av 3 times per decade, up to producer not consensus
Consumer can drink young or age in cellar
Throws heavy deposit


What is the Portuguese word for 'Estate'?



When are Ports blended?

Through the entire production process


What is the character of Muscat grapes?
What climate does it like?

Low~med acidity with perfumed aromas of Orange blossom, Rose and Grape.
Warm climate but some cooling influence to retain acidity and aromas


Give an example and simple tasting notes for an unaged Muscat
How is it made?

Muscat de Beaumes-de-Venise - S. Rhone
Medium gold, floral and aromatic with pure varietal character
Sweet but rarely luscious
Grapes ripe and healthy, crushed, some skin contact, cool ferment stopped with 96% abv grape spirit. Stored inert before bottling


Give an example and simple tasting notes for a fully developed aged Muscat
How is it made?

e.g. Rutherglen, Australia
Amber~brown. Sweet~luscious, oxidative aromas but still retaining varietal aromas.
Grapes picked ripe and healthy, some raisining permitted, fermentation on skins. If luscious ferment stopped at 2% abv then oxidative ageing in old wood


What’s a ‘Socolos’?

A traditional narrow terrace supported by Stone Walls


What do you call a traditional narrow terrace supported by Stone Walls?



What are ‘Patamares’?

A newer type of terrace used in the Port region that allows some mechanisation (tractor access) by not having retaining walls.


What is the name of a newer type of terrace used in the Port region that allows some mechanisation (tractor access) by not having retaining walls?



What is the name of the terracing system used in Port than can only be used on gentle slopes?

Vinha ao Alto


What is the single biggest difference between Ruby and Tawny styles of Port?

Ruby Ports are matured protectively to minimise oxidation
Tawny Ports are deliberately oxidised


What type of Port am I?
I am relatively inexpensive and made from a blend of wines typically between 1~3 years old. I lack concentration, complexity or tannins of my more premium peers

Ruby Port


What type of Port am I?
I am inexpensive and Tawny in colour with some browning achieved using lighter wines from Baixa Corgo, I have a period of hot maturation and heavy fining to remove some of my colour. I may even have a little white Port in me?

Inexpensive Tawny Port


What is the minimum ageing for a Reserve Tawny Port?

Wood aged for min 6 years?


What is the labelling term for Ruby and Tawny Ports that are of a higher quality and has been approved by an official tasting panel?

Reserve / Reserva


What type of Port am I?
I’ve been aged in large oak vessels for 4~6 yrs before bottling. I’m fined and filtered before bottling so am suitable for drinking as soon as I’m released.

Late Bottled Vintage Port


What type of Port am I?
I have undergone a long period of oxidative ageing in Pipes.
I can be labelled 10, 20, 30, 40 years old?

High quality Tawny with an indication of Age


If you have a Tawny wine with an age indication of e.g. 20 years, what does 20 years relate to?

The average age of the wines contained within so long as the wine is consistent with the characteristics of a wine of that age.


What must be shown on the label of a bottle of Tawny with an indication of Age Port? Why?

The year of bottling
Because they start to lose their freshness after bottling


What type of Port am I?
I am aged in Large Oak vessels or Stainless Steel tanks.
I must be bottled no later than the third year after harvest.
I am not fined or filtered before bottling. Normally you will age me yourself before drinking.

Vintage Port


How long must a Reserve Tawny Port be aged?

Min 6 yrs in wood